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Monday, March 28
 

09:00

 
Tuesday, March 29
 

09:00

09:00

09:00

09:00

Ariadne AGM
Tuesday March 29, 2016 09:00 - 18:00
Domus Bibliotheca

10:00

12:10

Lunch break (on your own)
Tuesday March 29, 2016 12:10 - 13:30
On your own

12:30

18:00

Icebreaker party
An ice breaker party will be held in the Museum of Cultural history on the evening of Tuesday 29thMarch. There will be drinks and “finger food”. The exhibitions of the museum will be open for the delegates to browse at their own pace. The ice breaker party takes place from 6 pm till 8 pm.

Tuesday March 29, 2016 18:00 - 20:00
Historisk museum Fredriks gate 2

20:00

Conference pub at The Frokostkjeller'n

In north east corner of the University garden there will be a conference pub in the old building called “Frokostkjelleren” (Eng: breakfast cellar). During the day this will be the help center as well as point for serving coffee and lunsj, and in the evening it becomes the conference pub, arranged in cooperation with the law students at the campus. Here you will be able to by some drinks at the same prices offered to students. The pub will be open Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.


Tuesday March 29, 2016 20:00 - 23:00
Frokostkjelleren University garden
 
Wednesday, March 30
 

08:30

Conference opening
Wednesday March 30, 2016 08:30 - 09:00
Domus Media, Aulaen

09:00

Keynote speech

Wednesday March 30, 2016 09:00 - 09:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:10

Coffee break
Coffee points in the Domus Academica, Professorboligen and the Frokostkjelleren

Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:10 - 10:30
Coffee point

10:30

10:30

S07-01 RAPID Aerial Scanning of UNESCO cultural heritage sites in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
RAPID Aerial Scanning of UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mohamed al-Farhan, Ahmad al-Hasanat, Mohamed Shalaby, Luca Passone, Thomas Levy, Neil Smith

Abstract
The rapid and extensive digital documentation of cultural heritage is now being made possible through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles and photogrammetry. A joint archaeological and computer vision project called RAPID was initiated in 2014 to digitally capture several of Saudi Arabia’s major cultural heritage sites throughout the country. By using a combination of non-invasive aerial and terrestrial 3D scanning techniques, the UNESCO cultural heritage sites of Al-Hijr (Ancient Dedan, Madain Saleh), ad-Dariyah and Al-Balad Historic Jeddah were digitally recorded. A major obstacle faced for each of these sites was their sheer size and complexity. In particular, Historic Jeddah’s dense urban cityscape consisting of hundreds of Rowshan tower houses spans an area of 250,000 m². Each site provided unique challenges in how UAVs and time-of-flight laser scanning were integrated. The project has resulted in massive datasets and ground-breaking software just to manage and visualize it. In this paper, we present the results, methodology, learned best practices, and integrated software and hardware developed to digitally document these massive areas of cultural significance.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

10:30

10:30

S12-01 Multi-shape archaeological modeling and communication
Multi-Shape Archaeological Modeling and Communication

Carlo Bianchini, Giulia Pettoello

Abstract
Fragmented, faceted and often even undisclosed, an archaeological site is perhaps one of the most heterogeneous piece of Cultural Heritage. Its multiple layers can be though classified into three main categories: completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The last one represents an element of special interest being related to the reading of an observer and his/her subjective background and ability in collecting, interpreting and elaborating a variety of data and information. 
Anastylosis operations are thus the product of this process of merging/filtering of information: data coming from fieldwork, surveys, documental sources, comparative analysis and so on. Too often though the results seem to address exclusively scholar and experts while a wider communication of new information and content is neglected or underestimated.
The project we are presenting, focusing on the archaeological site of Vulci in Tuscany, has instead tried to balance the two previous aspects (scientific consistency and communication effectiveness) exploring the potential of several outputs: video trailer, smartphone application, real-time model, 3D PDF and digital brochure. The research has taken into account both the nature of the archaeological site and the generic visitor’s need designing a tailor made communication project according to a specific object, the Great Temple in the Vulci site.
Intangible aspects have besides taken into great account: while in fact the communication of tangible elements is easier, intangible is instead difficult to be analyzed and transmitted. Our research has tried also to deal with these issues not only providing a virtual reconstruction of something that actually is just a memory (the Great Temple) but also of the “overall picture” of the cultural landscape the building used to be part of: a work possible only analyzing and interpreting the existing traces “in situ”. 
The result is a flexible communication grid which is at the same time very simple and intuitive. The cultural interaction between user and archeological heritage becomes a mutual exchange. Memory "takes" shape to return to existence again virtually.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

10:30

S21-01 An ontology for a numismatic island with bridges to others
An Ontology for a Numismatic Island with Bridges to Others

Karsten Tolle, David Wigg-Wolf, Ethan Gruber

Abstract
Nomisma.org is a collaborative project to provide stable digital representations of numismatic concepts according to the principles of Linked Open Data. These take the form of http URIs that also provide access to machine-readable information about those concepts, along with links to other resources. We have also constructed an Ontology for representing concepts in our thesaurus, and this has been applied to digital representations of physical specimens, enabling linking between specimens in Nomisma-defined numismatic concepts.
In our presentation we will describe the processes by which we designed this Ontology with a view to allowing the highest possible flexibility and therefore reducing the barriers to using it. It must be stressed that designing the Ontology was a long-lasting process and is still ongoing. It was often challenging to combine existing requirements and to solve misunderstandings between different parties.
We will further present how the Nomisma.org Ontology is used from three different viewpoints. For each viewpoint we will also demonstrate how the numismatic data are already linked to other data sources, thesauri, gazetteers or systems, such as Zenon (http://zenon.dainst.org/), Geonames, or others. The goal here is to enable and show how this can be used to combine different archaeological areas with our numismatic data.
The back-end system of Nomisma.org: We provide information how we handle data, imports and maintenance issues. 
Providers of numismatic datasets: Nomisma.org provides the ability to others to publish their RDF datasets (based on the Ontology and with additional modelling requirements) via the Nomisma.org site. For the maintenance of datasets we use Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID). 
We will furthering addition present how the Ontology is currently used by actors outside Nomisma.org (Online Coins of the Roman Empire, Antike Fundmuenzen Europa, Portable Antiquities Scheme, and others) in order to connect numismatic data between different sources.

Moderators
Speakers
EG

Ethan Gruber

American Numismatic Society | Twitter: @ewg118 | | Academia: http://numismatics.academia.edu/EthanGruber


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Bibliotheca

10:30

S22-01 Dynamic process, static document. How to solve the teacher’s baffling problem?
Dynamic process, static document. How to solve the teacher’s baffling problem?

Alexis Gorgues, Florent Comte

Abstract
As Lewis Binford noticed a long time ago, the main issue when dealing with archaeological data is to understand dynamic processes (the way Ancient societies worked) through the use of a basically static documentation, i.e. the material record. As an archaeology teacher, one of us (AG) could observe that it in no way easier to try to explain dynamic processes to student by using only a static graphic support (some PowerPoint slides) –which is the standard practice in French academic teaching-. To explain site formation processes, for instance, only through some slides, and armed with a marker and a blackboard, is possible, but will be time (and energy!) consuming… and can be pedagogically poorly effective.
This observation brought us to conceive dynamic pedagogical supports intended to be used in a context of direct interaction with the students. These support were indeed animation videos, often based on real case studies. Their topics were quite diversified: the first we made was about site formation processes, another one allowed to explain how to draw a stratigraphic section and what phenomenon it allow to describe. One of the most successful is about archaeological sites detection. The constitution of the funerary record was also considered. 
This initiative took place with a very limited financial support. Yet, student’s feedback is very positive, and the pedagogical efficiency of the teaching is improved: more complex idea can be effectively transmitted in fewer time. 
In this presentation, we propose to show some of these videos as well as to present the comments made by our 2nd year undergraduate students, who are our main “target”, in order to demonstrate the combination of digital technology one the one hand and old-fashioned, direct archaeology teaching can give convincing results.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

10:45

10:55

S07-02 Digital workflow on a selection of Danish excavations in the Århus area―With special emphasis on the use of 3D recording
Digital workflow on a selection of Danish excavations in the Århus area – with special emphasis on the use of 3D recording

Carsten Meinertz Risager

Abstract
In recent years the amount of digital data recorded by Danish museums with archaeological mitigation responsibilities has increased dramatically, especially with the increased use of 3D recording techniques. Handling these data is complex, and involves reconciling locally evolved, practice-led digital frameworks with mandatory national databases.
This presentation will provide an overview of these frameworks, followed by an exploration of the digital workflow Moesgaard Museum uses for its excavations by providing case-based walkthroughs of the different steps involved in 3D documentation of excavations. This will include a live demonstration of the 3D documentation process.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

10:55

S11-02 Methodological tips for mappings to CIDOC CRM
Methodological tips for mappings to CIDOC CRM

Maria Theodoridou, George Bruseker, Maria Daskalaki, Martin Doerr

Abstract
The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (ISO 21127:2006) has been chosen as the core model for use in several Cultural Heritage projects including ARIADNE , ITN-DCH , PARTHENOS , and ResearchSpace . A foundational activity of these projects then has been the effort to convert the data stored in existing schemata to an expression in CIDOC-CRM and its extensions. The goal of the conversion process is to enable information exchange and integration between heterogeneous sources of cultural heritage information. In order to support the scalability of these activities, which entail careful analytic work by someone familiar both with the domain and with the ontology, a series of training events were initiated aimed at professionals who have an understanding of the CIDOC CRM and need to develop skills in data mapping techniques.

This paper will present some modelling principles and methodological good practices that we have empirically derived from the above exercises in the sys-tematic mapping of diverse cultural data sets to CIDOC CRM and its extensions. This experience is specifically derived from mapping activities using the 3M (Mapping Memory Manager) tool in the above mentioned projects. In the paper we will address a number of fundamental issues. First, we look at the question of how to determine at the beginning of a mapping - the sufficiency of CIDOC-CRM and/or its extensions, for covering a given data set and when it would prove necessary to extend the model and introduce a new class, and how. We suggest practices related to the handling of identifiers that are local in the original source data set. We also treat some special issues of how to model the roles of people and organizations, including accidental roles, and present a methodology for introducing implicit contextual information. Finally we discuss issues related to the modeling of nationality, country and imaginary places.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:55

S12-02 A methodology for the analysis of graphical representations in archaeology and some preliminary results
A methodology for the analysis of graphical representations in archaeology and some preliminary results

Ruth Varela

Abstract
Nowadays, archaeology and its related disciplines face interesting challenges from the graphical point of view. The most relevant of these challenges revolves around the visual language used in graphical expression, and aims at finding the most suitable system of representation for each form of representation and for each stage of the knowledge generation process, especially in those methodologies that generate or manage a large quantity of data.

The main visual communication problem stems from the incorporation of visual languages linked to other disciplines with a lesser tradition of graphical expression, such as statistics, without a proper adaptation to the visual needs of archaeology and archaeologists. This results in much of the displayed graphic information being visually encrypted and, therefore, difficult to interpret. Additional problems exist in relation to the lack of expressive autonomy of many graphical representations. 

With the aim to understand and solve these problems, a method of analysis has been designed where a systematic analysis and description can be carried out of graphical variables and graphic elements intervening in the construction of archaeological graphical representations, as well as of the elements employed for their interpretative support. Regarding the graphical variables, aspects such as the type of graphical process, the structure of the composition, the narrative structure, the level of abstraction, the viewing distance, the temporal treatment or the intentionality, etc. are studied. Within the graphic elements, the graphical representations are dissected in order to reveal the typological units and graphic objects with true expressive autonomy. 

This approach was employed to analyse a sample of 1,200 images from 8 benchmark publications in archaeology and related disciplines. The obtained data provides a comprehensive view on the suitability of archaeological graphical representations with regard to issues such as information acquisition rate, legibility, visual cogency, the ability to generate meaning, and the symbolic or tropological potentiality. 

In the next stage of our research, systematic criteria will be set to help us select or develop graphical representation systems for quantitative methodologies in archaeology.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

10:55

S21-02 A Linked (Open) Data hub at the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage: A case study
A Linked (Open) Data hub at the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage - a case study

Carl Anders Olsson

Abstract
The Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage has since 2014 been working on establishing a centralized Linked (Open) Data hub for its own heritage related digital information. This RDF-hub, which contains content from seven separate databases, has a web based search interface on its top. There is also an associated SPARQL-endpoint which offers both the public and third party developers’ access to the open part of this data. The technical infrastructure is built using a standard RDF approach using predominantly open source tools. 
This proposed presentation aims at giving an overview of the key components of this new infrastructure from both a technical and content vise point of view. It will also address issues concerning the further development of the data hub. Key concepts are issues relating to:
• The benefits or drawbacks of mapping parts of this data to other heritage vocabularies such as EDM, CIDOC CRM etc.
• Challenges with the ambition to share as much of the data as possible with both other governmental agencies and with the public
• New or other uses of the aggregated data in relation to reporting, planning or research
• Potential third party interest and use of the openly shared material in mobile or web based dissemination or in other revenue generating activities


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Bibliotheca

10:55

S22-02 ArGO. Archaeological Geocaching Online. Teaching and learning archaeology with geocaching
ArGO. Archaeological Geocaching Online Teaching and Learning Archaeology with Geocaching

Michael Remmy

Abstract
Digital media has influenced the viewing and learning habits of students for the past decades. At the same time teaching habits in archaeology have not changed to the same extent: frontal teaching and lectures are often seen as best practice.
Therefore teachers in universities should also apply new methods and didactics to their curriculum to engage students in diverse learning settings.
One approach is ArGO (Archaeological Geocaching Online) - an e-learning tool for students of archaeology that is currently being developed at the Archaeological Institute and the Humanities Computer Science at the University of Cologne.
The main goal is to design virtual geocaching quests that students have to solve by using mobile devices on an archaeological site. On the one hand this allows the students to use their expertise in digital media while learning archaeological facts. On the other hand new impulses are given through the change of the learning environment and the use of self organized learning.
The development of ArGO is split up into two phases where each development phase focuses different groups of student learners:
 The first phase took place in the winter term 2015 / 2016 and engaged students of both institutes to focus on the Roman city of Cologne (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium). In three different groups the students researched various aspects of a Roman city (e.g. infrastructure, politics, religion) and transferred archaeological information into virtual caches. These virtual caches are presented in form of mobile-friendly web-based games which consist of quizzes, quests and minigames. Teaching methods such as clustering, project learning and evaluation of the different project sections were used to get the best possible learning outcome. The accompanying website http://www.argo.uni-koeln.de documents the progression of the seminar and backs up all results including the source codes of the developed web- and mobile- applications built with state of the art web-technologies.
 In the second phase the outcome of the individual students’ project work will be the basis for further endeavors in offering a mobile-friendly learning- and teaching-environment called ArGO.
The talk will illustrate the developments and results of the first teaching phase. It will also give an outlook on the second phase and possible fields of application.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

11:00

11:15

11:20

S11-03 An essay of mapping archaeological land-record system used by Inrap with CIDOC─CRM and CIDOC─CRMarchaeo extension using 3M online tool
An essay of mapping archaeological land-record system used by Inrap with CIDOC-CRM and CIDOC-CRMarchaeo extension using 3M on-line tool

Christophe TUFFERY, Achille FELICETTI, Patrick JARD, Nicolas HOLZEM, Thomas GUILLEMARD

Abstract
During a summer school on the CIDOC-CRM organized by the PIN of 21 to 25 July 2015 in Prato for the ARIADNE program(1), we have had the opportunity to use the CIDOC-CRMarchaeo extension (2). The aim of the summer school was to work effectively with a set of our own data field and try to match fields between archaeological land registration systems used by Inrap and those of CIDOC- CRM.
We had the opportunity to use the 3M application (Memory Mapping Manager), an online tool developed by ICS (3), which controls whether archaeological data can be matched with the CIDOC CRM model.
We tested the matching process with two fields of archaeological land recording systems used by Inrap (one based on Access and another on FileMaker Pro). Then we did the same with a prototype application on development by Inrap. This is an interface using Google Chrome, SQLite, JavaScript and HTML5, and witch aims to allow data exchange with the two previous land registration systems mentioned above. Working with the on-line application 3M (4) allowed assessing whether two of the main archaeological entities (the stratigraphic units and archaeological facts) can be matched with the CIDOC CRM model and CIDOC-CRMarcheo extension.
The work demonstrated the 3M on-line tool meets the needs of matching fields of archaeological recording systems tested with classes Model CIDOC-CRM and especially its CIDOC-CRMarchaeo extension. This matching procedure has demonstrated the ability to assess whether an archaeological land recording system may or may not be considered as matching with CIDOC-CRM models and how to adapt it to conform if it doesn’t initially. Therefore new tests will soon be conducted with other land archaeological recording systems used by Inrap.

(1) http://vast-lab.org/bando-summer-school-ariadne-2015/
(2) http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl/index_main.php?l=e&c=711
(3) Institute of Computer Science (http://www.ics.forth.gr), Forth Foundation, Greece
(4) http://139.91.183.3/3M/

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

11:20

S21-03 Linking periods: Modeling and utilizing spatio─temporal concepts in the chronOntology project
Linking periods: Modeling and utilizing spatio-temporal concepts in the chronOntology project

Sebastian Cuy, Wolfgang Schmidle, Florian Thiery

Abstract
In the last years several web services emerged that manage and make accessible place thesauri for the archaeologies and historical sciences. By making use of semantic technologies these applications are able to act as linked data hubs thereby making possibe the linkage of multiple datasets of varying thematic focus and of different structural properties. Another common denominator of archaeological data resources, besides geo-spatial properties, is the temporal classification of research objects. One of the applications that try to assume a role similar to that of gazetteers but for temporal concepts and cultural periods is developed in the chronOntology project.

In this project, funded by the German Research Foundation, the German Archaeologial Institute (DAI) together with the i3mainz are developing a system for storing, managing, mapping and making accessible descriptions of temporal concepts. The core of this endeavor is a rich semantic modeling of various existing terminological systems for cultural periods using a data model based on the CIDOC-CRM and its extensions. The use of the rich ontological model provided by the CRM on the one hand permits representing the measurable temporal extent (with the possibility for fuzzy edges) while also making it possible to embed temporal concepts in a network of semantic relationships to other temporal concepts, connected historical regions and thematic contexts.

Besides documenting the general architecture and data model of the project the paper will present possibilities of querying different heterogeneous data resources collected throughout various digitization and digging activities inside the DAI with the help of concepts defined in chronOntology. We will also point out the potential and problems of reasoning over geographically and temporally connected datasets.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Bibliotheca

11:20

S22-03 When I was a child, I wanted to be an archaeologist. What about now? A French case study
When I was a child, I wanted to be an archaeologist. What about now? A French case study

Anne Moreau, Sylvain Badey

Abstract
The development of digital technologies in archaeology brought up changes in the way of practicing archaeology, since the apparition of computers and even more with the internet. In the last few years, we have seen a multiplication of free software and the global movement of open data and open access involves a larger free diffusion of tools and data. This digital evolution has several consequences such as the erasure of the previous barriers between the different activities of the archaeological process (topography, archaeology, drawing…). On the one hand, it’s a way of developing individual skills but on the other hand, it’s shaking up the archaeological world: formerly, the skills and the tools used were linked to a well-identified activity or job. Currently some of the new tasks of the archeological process–related to the new technologies involved - are spread over several contributors who developed skills by themselves most of the time. 
Three observations can be made:
- this situation is increasing the gap between the self-educated archaeologists and those who have more “traditional” ways of working
- we need to redefine the jobs in order to propose, if necessary, a better sharing of the tasks and a better identification of the skills
- we need to think about the training in archaeology taking the new skills needed into account.

The French National Institute for Preventive Archaeology is a public institution. It comprises around 2000 archaeologists who realize more than 2000 operations a year. In 2011, the institute has launched an important program to promote the use of GIS. In that perspective, means have been used for the definition of a further education programmes: four different programmes dedicated to the use of GIS (two levels), statistics and photogrammetry are offered. Nowadays, around 600 archaeologists have been trained. But the definition of the matter of the training sessions is based on a larger reflection about the digital technologies to be integrated. Choices have to be made.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

11:20

S07-03 The 3D photogrammetry documentation of the Mesolithic grave from Brunstad, Norway
The 3D-photogrammetry documentation of the Mesolithic grave from Brunstad, Norway

Kristin Eriksen, Almut Schülke

Abstract
In 2014 archaeologists from the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, found the remains of an inhumation burial with preserved human bone material on the Mesolithic site of Brunstad, Vestfold, Norway. Preserved bone material is seldom found in Norwegian Stone-Age contexts due to very acid soil conditions, and possible grave-finds that can be ascribed the Mesolithic period are rare. Thus the documentation of the grave was of special importance. The grave was unearthed in several blocks for excavation in the laboratory. 3D-photogrammetry was used to document the situation in the field, but also under later excavation in the laboratory, where each block was singularly documented. The aim was to later compile the different datasets to reconstruct the components of the burial. We used the software Agisoft Photoscan and ArcScene for 3D-modelling and processing. 
In the talk we will focus on the challenges of documenting this find and the search for practicable solutions. This involves the excavation, documentation and preservation work in the lab. We will describe the workstation that was used for a well-functioning co-operation and work-flow between the osteo-archaeologist, conservator, and the GIS-expert. Several challenges will be pointed out, like the poor condition of the skeletal material, and the fact that the burial due to several reasons had to be split into several blocks before it could put together again digitally. We will also show how 3D photogrammetric data can contribute to the understanding and interpretation of the burial.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:20 - 11:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

11:30

11:45

11:45

S07-04 Using 3D photogrammetry in the field: An example from Kvåle Sogndal, Norway
Using 3-D photogrammetry in the field - an example from Kvåle Sogndal, Norway by Cecilia Falkendal, Ingebjørg Njos Storvik and Kevin Wooldridge (Universitetsmuseet i Bergen)

Kevin Wooldridge, Cecilia Falkendal, Ingebjørg Njos Storvik

Abstract
During a small excavation project at Kvåle Sogndal in the Spring of 2015, archaeologists from the Universitetsmuseet i Bergen used a pole camera and Agisoft Photoscan 'structure through motion' software as a tool for basic site data capture. This was utilised along with the Intrasis archaeological GIS programme to record a complicated structural sequence of medieval and later buildings, associated with a possible church and later forming part of a farm complex. Processing of the geo-referenced 3-D orthoimages was achieved on site by the excavation team and the results used for the detailed recording of the structures and as the annotated record for entry into the site GIS. The geo-referenced orthoimages served as the basic on-site horizontal site plan and also the vertical profile record. This paper will detail the methodology used for the initial data capture and on-site processing and the practical applications of onsite 3-D imaging.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

11:45

S11-04 Formalisation and reuse of methodological knowledge on archaeology across European organisations
Formalisation and Reuse of Methodological Knowledge on Archaeology across European Organisations

Cesar Gonzalez-Perez, Patricia Martín-Rodilla, Elena Epure

Abstract
Archaeological projects vary greatly in size, complexity, object of study, timescale and other aspects. Finding the most suitable methodology for a project is often difficult, and an inadequate choice can ruin many months’ worth of fieldwork, bias data interpretation, and slow down or impede cross-project comparison of results. An archaeological methodology should be as adjusted as possible to the project needs, take into consideration techniques and approaches successfully applied in the past, and clearly expressed for better understanding and sharing among the involved agents. These goals are usually pursued informally through the application of tacit knowledge that exists within archaeology organisations, leading to situations where: 1) it is difficult to convey what is expected to be done, especially to new team members or external collaborators; 2) methodological knowledge is underutilised and rarely reused, especially across organisations; and 3) the improvement of methodologies over time is difficult since no explicit knowledge about them exists.
As we have previously proposed [Gonzalez-Perez and Hug 2012, “Crafting Archaeological Methodologies”], situational method engineering (SME) can be used to mitigate these problems. SME does not conceive a methodology as a monolithic black box, but as an assembly of pre-existing components that are selected from a repository and composed together. Each component encapsulates a proven, reusable and self-contained “atom” of knowledge that can be reused, recombined in different situations, and improved over time. In the context of the FP7 ARIADNE project, we have applied an SME approach by which the informal methodological knowledge of seven European archaeological organisations (including university departments, research centres and museums) was formalised as discrete components, stored into a database, and linked to other components. Natural language processing techniques have been used to assist in the information extraction and formalisation process.
The resulting repository has allowed us to obtain variations of established methodologies to cater for different project situations; combine different methodologies for collaborations and other hybrid scenarios; and carry out a comparative analysis of commonalities and differences between the archaeological practices of the selected organisations.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Cesar Gonzalez-Perez

Cesar Gonzalez-Perez

Staff Scientist, Incipit CSIC
I work in conceptual modelling, metamodelling, and knowledge engineering for cultural heritage.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Media, Aulaen

11:45

S12-04 Emerging technologies for archaeological heritage: Knowledge, digital documentation, communication
Emerging technologies for Archaeological Heritage: knowledge, digital documentation, communication.

martina attenni, carlo bianchini, alfonso ippolito

Abstract
Knowledge of archaeological artefacts at various representation scales is today required of any three-dimensional models. The significance of constructing digital models in the domain of archaeology is a well-established idea and only reinforces the theoretical bases of survey and representation, conceived as structured systems for organizing and communicating information, and as the databases for critical analysis that optimize the results obtained from the concerted work of archaeologists, architects, informatics experts, etc.
Presented here is a study of the Etruscan Sanctuary of Pyrgi (Santa Severa, Rome). Most of its archaeological material derives from ancient excavations. Only a few structural remnants have survived in loco, and numerous fragments of the decorative apparatus are partly exhibited in Museo Nazionale Etrusco at the Villa Giulia (Rome) and at the Antiquarium (Santa Severa).
The aim is to start a process never applied to the data on the Sanctuary. The objectives have been the following: documenting and unifying information obtained from various excavation campaigns at different times with surveying techniques that ensure an a-critical cognition of the analyzed object; present a digital reconstruction of the sacred area based on philological analysis of data; apply digital technologies for dissemination of information.
The core of the work is mainly based on the definition of 3D/2D/1D models based on several surveying and representation techniques (3D laser scanning, image-based modelling, semantic structuring). Attention has been focused on scientific advantages, costs, precision level guaranteed by various techniques as well as on digital visualization as the fundamental element of communication strategy.
This research illustrates a complete methodology for the virtual assembling and the communicating of dismounted archaeological elements. The study includes a wide classification of elements of tangible and intangible heritage within a digital platform used as the place of expeditious consultation of heterogeneous data taking into consideration various user typologies.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

11:45

S21-04 The Matrix: Connecting time and space with archaeological research questions involving spatio─temporal phenomena and the conceptual relationships between them
The Matrix: Connecting Time and Space with archaeological research questions involving spatio-temporal phenomena and the conceptual relationships between them.

Keith May

Abstract
The most common type of record in archaeological recording systems is the spatial dimension. When recording new layers, buildings, or any physical objects, we measure height, width, depth and for archaeological features we will describe shape in plan and section as well as attributes like profile, diameter and breaks of slope. 
Recording of temporal information about similar features is far less prevalent, but is still an important (perhaps more crucial) part of the record, particularly for objects where the dates of coins, brooches, or pottery and other ‘finds’ objects (with relative chronologies) are used for temporal reasoning or inferences about deposition dates and sequences across archaeological stratigraphy.
Having divided the archaeology into various units for recording purposes, we use stratigraphy, and associated temporal logical relationships between the physical materials recorded as the 'reasoning glue', in the form of Phases and Periods, to connect all these different spatial and temporal phenomena back together again with various narratives to explain our conclusions.
For 'single context recording' most archaeological temporal reasoning is based on the principles of stratigraphic superposition, the "Above and Below relationship" (Harris). But further principles of temporal reasoning are also available (Allen). The CIDOC CRM uses the Allen operators to describe not just superposition but a set of more complex temporal logical relationships that can pertain between archaeological data.
This paper will give an insight into how conceptual reference modeling can be used to explore these issues and how associated semantic technologies can enable semantically enriched deductions about the spatio-temporal relationships which fundamentally link such archaeological data together.
It will also consider where further work is needed to deal with not just spatial or temporal records but to reason about wholly spatio-temporal phenomena and how this can form the basis for new linkages between archaeological information across space-time.

Allen, James F. Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. In: Communications of the ACM. 26 November 1983. ACM Press. pp. 832–843, ISSN 0001-0782

Harris, E. Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy. (1979). London & New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-326651-3

Moderators
Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Bibliotheca

11:45

S22-04 Towards the integration of green and cultural heritage management. Developing content for blended learning
Towards the integration of green and cultural heritage management. Developing content for blended learning

Heleen Van Londen, Marjo Schlaman, Andrea Travaglia

Abstract
The European Archaeological and Natural Heritage project (ANHER) focuses on increasing knowledge and skills for professionals working in the archaeological and natural heritage sectors in Europe. Facing social, economic and climate changes, the development and improvement of knowledge of landscape management and protection of the archaeological and natural heritage has become a necessity. Through an interdisciplinary approach to the landscape heritage, new knowledge, new methods and new policies can be developed which will improve and strength conventional approaches. The basic principle is that through a better understanding of the importance of archaeological heritage and natural heritage for the rural environment, sustainable management of the landscape can be realized.
Within the project, the six European partners develop a variety of integrated educational e-learning materials designed to treat important facets of both sectors. The project also contributes to the development of improved methods and content of higher education and vocational training in the field of heritage. The digital method ensures that education sectors can be connected to the continuous changes concerning the protection and management of archaeological and natural heritage. This includes the role of the built heritage in urban planning and local and regional heritage policy in Europe.
The project will result in European Centres of Integrated Heritage Teaching Excellence in view of preservation of knowledge, methods and policy. These centres will provide an organizational structure for continuous training and a technical infrastructure for blended learning that will benefit the various labour markets.

Dutch project team:
Dr. Heleen van Londen (UvA, projectleader), Andrea Travaglia (UvA), Marjo Schlaman (UvA)

Project partners: 
InEuropa srl, Modena (Italy)
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
A Rocha pt, Mexilhoeira Grande (Portugal)
Aranzadi Society of Sciences, San Sebastian (Spain)
Landward Research Ltd, Sheffield (United Kingdom)
University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)


Wednesday March 30, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

12:10

Lunch break
Wednesday March 30, 2016 12:10 - 12:40
Frokostkjelleren University garden

13:30

13:30

S07-05 Supercomputing at the trench edge: Expediting image based 3D recoding
Supercomputing at the trench edge: Expediting image based 3D recoding

David Stott, Matteo Pilati, Carsten Meinertz Risager, Peter Jensen, Casper Skaaning Andersen, Jens-Bjørn Riis Andresen

Abstract
Image-based 3D reconstruction with Structure From Motion (SFM) techniques are increasingly used for documenting archaeological excavations. They afford an inexpensive means of recording accurate, detailed spatial and radiometric data, but there are a number of challenges presented by these methods. Foremost among these is the time it takes to produce a finished model. Due to the computationally intensive nature of these techniques processing often takes hours to complete. This is problematic, as archaeological excavation is by its nature a destructive practice where success is contingent on the quality of the record. Validating and interpreting these data in the field, while the subject still exists is essential. Thus, rapidly processing the models and making them available to archaeologists as they excavate is of crucial importance.

In this presentation we demonstrate how the process of model generation can be expedited to occur in near real-time, from the field. This is achieved using three approaches. First, by remotely processing the images over a 4G mobile internet connection to the High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster at DeIC Abacus 2.0 we can dramatically increase the computational power available on site. Second, we examine the effect different parameters have on processing speed and quality of the finished model. Third, we argue that data transfer and processing time can be further optimised by appropriately constraining image size to the scale of the objects being recorded.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

13:30

S11-05 Semantic database applications at the Samtavro Cemetery, Georgia
Semantic database applications at the Samtavro Cemetery, Georgia

David Bader, Aleksandra Michalewicz, Oded Green, Jessie Birkett-Rees, Jason Riedy, James Fairbanks, Anita Zakrzewska

Abstract
In 2013 a paper was offered to the CAA concerning archaeological legacy data and semantic database applications, with some preliminary results for a study conducted into the Samtavro cemetery, situated in the South Caucasus in the modern republic of Georgia. The present paper presents further research outcomes of data mining the Samtavro material. Over four thousand graves were excavated at this site, used most intensively during the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, and later in the Roman and Late Antique periods. The current project focuses on the latter period—and the legacy of Soviet and post-Soviet excavations—in a collaborative effort between computer scientists based at the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, and archaeologists at the University of Melbourne and Monash University, Australia. 

Data for 1075 tombs, 1249 individuals, and 5842 grave accoutrements were collected across 74 data fields, resulting in the identification of 9 tomb types, 37 artefact types and 320 artefact subtypes. Methods tested against the Samtavro material culture included the application of clustering techniques to understand associations of related items based on patterns of co-occurrence, using traditional data mining (hierarchical link clustering) and spectral graph theory—focusing on tomb types in relation to artefact types. The other method calculated the probability of each event occurring and comparing this to what we would expect if these were truly random—focusing on artefact types in relation to biological sex and age brackets.

In some instances, our work confirmed previously established relationships, but it likewise revealed new results concerning particular entities. The project demonstrates that although sites for which comprehensive archival records exist can benefit from these types of approaches, often the greatest limitation in taking a ‘big data’ approach is the relative scarcity of archaeological data.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Media, Aulaen

13:30

S12-05 Towards a European standard for spatial data management for archaeological heritage: Experiences in France and Italy
Towards a European standard for spatial data management for archaeological heritage: experiences in France and Italy

Anne Moreau, Federico Nurra

Abstract
Archaeological heritage is most of the time linked to space. That is why this communication will focus on spatial data and the way we manage them for documentation interpretation and communication, through two European case studies.
The issue of homogenization and harmonization of spatial data in archeology has become by now central to the scientific debate. The explosion of GIS, first, and Web Mapping, later, requires constant reflection on the standards to be adopted.
This paper aims to make a point about the situation of two European Countries, Italy and France, which have faced the problem in a different way, in the field of preventive archeology:
the first through the testing module SITAN/MODI of MiBACT at the Department of Architecture, Design and Urbanism of the University of Sassari (DADU); the second through the structuring of a Spatial Data Catalog at the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeology (INRAP).
INRAP has strengthened in recent years the use of GIS in archaeological practice; it has invested heavily in the training of archaeologists and has produced a considerable amount of data.
The DADU has focused on the theoretical aspects functional to the construction of a metasystem able to dialogue with the several ongoing trials in Italy.
The common attempt was to arrive at a minimal form of implementation, storage and representation of spatial and topographic data without losing the important informative supply related to the attributes.
The informational architecture of the system will therefore be explained in the paper.
Despite the obvious differences between the two contexts, the paper will seek the common meeting points that enable to launch a proposal for homogenization and standardization of production of spatial data in archeology.
The proposed challenge is in fact to overcome national boundaries, make borders permeable and work towards a common platform, open and shared, for the interchange of spatial data in archeology.
An important step towards a shared knowledge and an active protection of the European cultural heritage.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

13:30

S21-05 When data meets the enterprise. How we turned a merger of organisations into a confluence of information
When data meets the enterprise. How we turned a merger of organisations into a confluence of information.

Koen Van Daele, Maarten Vermeyen, Sophie Mortier, Leen Meganck

Abstract
In 2012 Flanders Heritage Agency was created as a central agency dealing with immovable cultural heritage - broadly defined as archaeology, built heritage and cultural landscapes - in Flanders. Prior to this, tasks of this agency were carried out by several independent agencies. The merger created a very heterogenous set of business processes, IT-components and systems. This, together with a new heritage legislation, prompted a re-evaluation of these systems and their business processes. 

This paper will delve into our system architecture, built on a core separation of concerns between data driven applications and proces driven applications. We will explain how we came to implement this in a service oriented architecture . We will detail how and why we chose to go with REST services instead of SOAP services. 

The resource oriented focus of REST services has served us well in creating inter-linking datasources that are firmly grounded in the world wide web and the HTTP protocol. We will demonstrate how we link these resources by using cool URI's. While a majority of our links are between the resources we create and maintain ourselves, we will also look at how we interact with external resources and services when it comes to specific domains such as vocabularies and GIS. 

Finally we will look at how we are further enhancing our data by more formally publishing it through the use of semantic technologies such as RDF. We aim to create truly linked open data in this way. We will look at some of the stumbling blocks we have encoutered along the way. The most significant one to date being the clash between open data and privacy regulations and how to implement access control on linked data.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Koen Van Daele

Koen Van Daele

Application Manager, Flanders Heritage Agency


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Bibliotheca

13:30

S22-05 Archaeological education for a digital world: Case studies from the contemporary and historical US
Archaeological Education for a Digital World: Case studies from the contemporary and historical US

Anna S Agbe-Davies

Abstract
This paper takes as its premises that 1) archaeological education extends beyond the university walls to embrace the needs of a wider public, and 2) archaeology is an integrated discipline that includes the analysis of not only material culture , but also texts and other models of human expression. The author discusses initiatives to use digital technologies and techniques to "teach" "archeology" in the broadest sense of both words. Examples include using digital archeological data from DAACS.org to teach analytical processes and the scientific method, the class-sourcing/crowd-sourcing of archival transcription using FromThePage.com, and building websites to teach both archaeological content and digital literacies. What some now call the digital humanities is not new to archaeology, but we will do well to embrace technological and methodological innovations in the realm of education, just as we have in our research.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

13:45

13:55

S07-06 Creation of an Early 19th century Siberian ship 3D model
Creation of an Early-19-Century Siberian Ship 3D Model
'
Andrei A. Pushkarev, Olga V. Zaytсeva, Mikhail V. Vavulin, Anna Y. Skorobogatova

Abstract
The Northeast Passage played a great role in the colonization of Siberia. However, we know almost nothing about design and specific features of Russian ships of the 17th–19th centuries that sailed through the Northeast Passage and gave rise to the very first Russian settlements on the Ob river. Due to the absence of drawings and the inadequacy of written sources, dependable reconstruction of historic vessels is virtually impossible if no archeological data is used. 
Archaeological investigation of a 19-century wooden ship was performed in 2015 on the bank of Kiryas, an arm of the Ob river. At the moment, this is the only large wooden ship in Siberia explored using archaeological methods. Another unique feature of the ship is its almost undamaged condition, which will ultimately allow for complete reconstruction. 
The flat-bottomed ship measures 34 х 7 x 1,7 m. The planks of the bottom and the side slopes are connected with more than 50 frames made of stump wood.
In order to save as much information about the unique discovery as possible, a computer reconstruction project was developed. The first stage was launched in September 2015 and included two types of surveying:
1) Digital orthophotography of the ship location. The photos were made using Octocopter UAV Zala 421-22 and Sony RX1 camera.
2) High-precision digital photogrammetry of the wooden ship. Surveying was performed using Nikon D800 digital photo camera.
The resulting photos were then processed with Agisoft Photoscan software.
The works performed provided for:
- An overview ship location 3D model, 10 cm resolution;
- A textured ship 3D model, 0,4 cm resolution.
In the course of works, the following new techniques were used:
- Overlapping of land survey data and UAV images;
- Survey of ill-lit areas:
- Combining images of individual ship parts into a whole model;
- Reconstruction of the missing ship elements using photos from earlier years.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

13:55

S11-06 A Catalog for archaelogical resources
A Catalog for Archaelogical Resources

Franca Debole, Nicola Aloia, Christos Papatheodorou, Dimitris Gavrilis, Carlo Meghini

Abstract
The European funded project Ariadne (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu/) aims to develop an infrastructure to aggregate, enrich, integrate and make available the data and services so far developed by the international archaeology research communities. The project enriches and integrates data resources – such as descriptions of datasets, collections, metadata schemas, vocabularies, etc. - and services in order to create a universally accessible shared knowledge base for the archaeology domain.

In the context of Ariadne a crucial concept to integrate and manage different resources is the catalog, or registry. The catalog of Ariadne lists and describes what is available from the project partners, and more generally the whole community of archaeologists, to identify, through refined search mechanisms, the candidate resources for integration. Data registries is in effect a well-known data organization and management approach that provides an environment in which datasets, collections, metadata schemas and vocabularies along with their mappings would be hosted and described by a common schema. Actually, the data registries enhance the accessibility and re-usability of the (research) data.

This paper presents the data model of the Ariadne catalog named Ariadne Catalog Data Model (ACDM) that extends the existing data registry standards. The central notion of the model is the class ArchaeologicalResource, specialized in the classes: (i) DataResource, whose instances represent the various types of data containers (e.g. collections, GIS, datasets) owned by the ARIADNE partners and lent to the project for integration; (ii) LanguageResource, having as instances vocabularies, metadata schemas, gazetteers and mappings (between language resources); (iii) Services, whose instances represent the services owned by the Ariadne partners and lent to the project for integration. The paper presents the aggregation service that is based on the ACDM model and enables the partners to upload huge volumes of metadata to the Catalog as well as the main functionalities of the Ariadne portal (http://ariadne-portal.dcu.gr/).

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

13:55

S12-06 Comprehensive field survey: Multidisciplinary approach for a field prospection
Comprehensive Field Survey - Multidisciplinary Approach for a Field Prospection

Julia Maria Chyla, Marzena Ożarek-Szilke, Wojciech Ejsmond

Abstract
Since 2013 the goals of the Gebelein Archaeological Project are to recognize the potential of the site complex, to show the most threatened areas, to document the visible archaeological features and to summarize its more than 100 years old research history. Our aims lead us to the simultaneous management of different kinds of data, which were not only collected and post-processed but interpreted as well. The amount of information collected from different sources, resulted in the development of a new method for gathering information from the field, open source databases and archives. We would like to present the results of the past two years of testing this new approach on the examples of northern cemeteries of Gebelein. This area was chosen for several reasons. One of them is the tomb of Iti- a grave of a high official from the late 3rd millennium BC. Iti’s tomb was excavated by the Italian mission at the beginning of the 20th century and its area was researched later on in 1990s. During our research we discovered numerous archaeological features unmentioned in earlier publications. This situation provided us with a suitable area for testing the new method comprising of: the gathering of archival data about the excavations previously conducted in this area, the analysis of the necropolis’ destruction through satellite photos and a field survey with the use of mobile GIS focused on anthropological data ( such as sex, age, paleopathology, osteometry), ceramic (type, part, dating) and archaeological data (type of feature, is it threaten, etc.). The results gained gave us a new view on the context that the Iti tomb was localized in and on the northern necropolis.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

13:55

S21-06 Where is the House of the Dwarves? Enhancing granularity in the Pleiades Gazetteer: The examples of ancient Sicily and Pompeii
Where is the House of the Dwarves? Enhancing granularity in the Pleiades Gazetteer: the examples of ancient Sicily and Pompeii

Valeria Vitale, Jeffrey Becker, Jonathan Prag

Abstract
Pleiades, the online gazetteer of ancient places, has, for several years, been a precious resource for classicists and historians. Assigning a stable URI to each ancient place has allowed a number of digital projects to build on top of this infrastructure, developing new tools and resources such as Pelagios. 

We believe that Pleiades could stimulate and facilitate new and interesting applications by assigning URIs to geographical units smaller than cities. The aim of this paper is to support this idea discussing two examples:

The digital epigraphic project iSicily. This project involves the identification, locating and addition to Pleaides of various Sicilian contrade (an administrative unit that was common in rural southern Italy) and other sublocations that have been recorded in archaeological reports and previous bibliography as findspots of antiquities, or positions of ancient monuments (some of which no longer exist). The availability of these URIs allows a strong and informative synergy between academic research on those antiquities and museum metadata, expressed in linked data, showing relationships and suggesting potential patterns and future lines of enquiry.

The city of Pompeii. This project involves minting specific URIs for each Pompeian building. The Campanian city offers a unique case study due to the amount of information, bibliography, and often confusion, that orbits around many of the single buildings. Assigning a URI to each of them will help grouping and disambiguating the names and the interpretations (sometimes dramatically different) assigned to the same building during the last 250 years. Secondly, it will facilitate dialogue between several existing and future digital projects about Pompeian buildings. Lastly, it will link the information about Pompeian artefacts stored in databases, digital repositories or museum archives with the exact building where the artefact was found, and not exclusively with the generic provenance “Pompeii”, thus offering an immediate basic level of contextualisation and highlighting connections with other artefacts related to the same building.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Bibliotheca

13:55

S22-06 Digital data recording at Circus Maximus: A recent experience
Digital data recording at Circus Maximus: a recent experience

Alessandro Vecchione, Domenica Dininno, Giulio Casazza

Abstract
Between 2011 and 2014 a stratigraphic excavation was carried out in the area of the Circus Maximus in Rome by the Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni Culturali in agreement with the Università Sapienza of Rome, chair of Ancient roman city planning. The excavation and the field data recording campaign were part of a large-scale project for the environmental requalification and promotion of the archaeological remains of the Circus Maximus.
The whole area is currently undergoing restoration works in preparation for the opening for the public fruition; the excavation, carried out at the same time, focused at the beginning on the external ambulatory and on the radial rooms facing the Palatine hill; later, the area where in roman times stood the arch of Titus was dug up.
The excavation involved 50 archaeology students of the ancient topography curriculum. While working in the educational digging the young archaeologists were trained in the use of new technologies for the field data recording: above all this activity focused on the use of photogrammetry and image based modelling. 
The methodological choice was motivated by the hybrid nature of the archaeological site – an educational excavation but also a public work of urgent nature: the restoration works were urgent and this forced to speed the archeological research and, subsequently, the graphic recording of the structures and findings. Digital photogrammetry, after comparing costs and benefits, proved to be the best solution for the archaelogists's needs.
At the end of the excavation, when the archaeologists completed the data digitalisation, the need to improve the student's knowledge of new technologies during university courses was clear.
This presentation aims to share our opinion on the reliability of the methodolgy that was used, the changes it brought to the organization of the team's work and the issues related whith the archiving and sharing of data.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Alessandro Vecchione

Alessandro Vecchione

PhD student, Sapienza - Università di Roma


Wednesday March 30, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

14:00

S28-09 Proof of concept verifying
Moderators
Speakers
IH

Irmela Herzog

LVR-Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland | | Personal Page: http://www.stratify.org


Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:00 - 14:15
Professorboligen, stallen

14:15

14:20

S07-07 3D spatial analysis: Beyond extrusion and sectioning
3D spatial analysis: beyond extrusion and sectioning

Martijn van Leusen, Gary Nobles

Abstract
Over the last 5 years, the fields of 3D archaeological data capture and visualisation have seen a quick development, both in terms of the technology involved (hardware and software) and in the numbers of groups involved and conference papers and articles produced. A similar development has been ongoing in many neighbouring disciplines. This paper, after briefly setting out the current state of the field, focuses on future needs and current limitations to the analytical use of 3D data in archaeology. It then sets out a proposal for an R&D agenda that aims to achieve mature 3D spatial analytical (GIS) functionality within 5 years.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

14:20

S11-07 Using semantic technologies for the deep integration of research items in ARIADNE
Using semantic technologies for the deep integration of research items in ARIADNE

Philipp Gerth, Wolfgang Schmidle, Sebastian Cuy

Abstract
One important goal of the EU-funded ARIADNE project is to integrate data originating in a variety of different disciplines in the archaeologies and connected subjects in order to facilitate access to heterogeneous data sources. This integration on the one hand happens on a large scale by incorporating descriptions of vast amounts of research resources into the ARIADNE catalog. On the other hand experiments on the tight integration of the detailed descriptions of single item of research investigates workflows and use-cases for semantically integrated data.

In this paper we will describe a practice-orientated approach on dealing with this problem with the help of Semantic Web Technologies. A specific use case on integrating finds from various databases will be presented. We will highlight the difficulties in integrating databases with differing genesis (museum catalog, object database, excavation database), therefore different terminology, focus and languages.

The integrated datasets will be accessible via a unified programming interface, which allows rich querying possibilities. This interface lays the groundwork for a user interface, which facilitates the intuitive formulation of queries for accessing the integrated data.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

14:20

S12-07 New actualities for Mediterranean ancient theatres: The Athena Project lesson
New Actualities for Mediterranean Ancient Theatres: the Athena Project lesson.

Carlo Bianchini, Alfonso Ippolito, Carlo Inglese

Abstract
Ancient Theatres are in many ways one of the most extraordinary legacies that past civilizations
have left us: from a cultural standpoint, because of the importance that these monuments had in the social life of each community; from the environmental standpoint, because of the enormous skill that went into controlling the structures’ territorial and urban impact; and finally, from a ‘technological’ and functional standpoint, because of the excellence of their distribution patterns and acoustics, hard to equal even today.
No less extraordinary is how well this architectural type is distributed around the entire Mediterranean basin, or the number of theatres that regularly host performances and shows.
Prospectively, though, the survival of Ancient Theatres oscillates between a contemporary reuse that keeps their functions alive along with their overall relevance (but in the long run will lead to decay) and an uncompromising conservation that by eliminating all manmade pressures would indeed be effective in preserving the structure but would nevertheless condemn it to an inexorable death, culturally, socially and economically.
A third factor, the widespread lack of awareness among the communities (local, but not only), has increasingly demonstrated its relevance in the process, pushing a number of activities to address not only the “knowledge” phase but also the issues related with communication and dissemination of content and information beyond the traditional cluster of experts.
In this framework we shall present the activities developed by the Ancient Theatres Enhancement for New Actualities (Athena) Project funded by the EU within the Euromed Heritage IV Program. A project addressing six famous sites on both shores of the Mediterranean (Mérida, Petra, Jerash, Carthage, Cherchell and Siracusa) providing a special focus both on the documentation, the reading and finally some innovative ways to involve also the general public through user-friendly instruments and outputs.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

14:20

S21-07 LOD for Numismatic LAM Integration
LOD for Numismatic LAM Integration

Ethan Gruber

Abstract
The American Numismatic Society (ANS), founded in 1858, is a research institute focusing coins from all eras and regions. It owns one of the largest collections of coins in the world, one of the largest numismatic libraries, is a publisher of monographs and journals, and maintains an archive of research notes from scholars associated with the Society. The ANS has been involved in the publication of numismatic databases and dissemination of such materials following Linked Open Data (LOD) methodologies since 2011; aspects of these digital projects (from Nomisma.org to Online Coins of the Roman Empire, http://numismatics.org/ocre/) have been detailed at previous CAA conferences.

While these other projects have focused on implementing LOD techniques in the publication of coin hoard or typological databases, this paper focuses on applying open standards from across the Library, Archive, and Museum domains to thoroughly integrate the ANS's numismatic collection, library, archive, scholarly publications, and typological and hoard databases. We have begun a new project to digitize nearly 100 monographs into TEI, inserting links to people or places defined on Nomisma or the Pleiades Gazetteer of Ancient Places, citations to books or archival materials held by the ANS, coins in our or other museum collections, and references to hoards or coin types published online. These digital monographs, in essence, become research gateways into similar topics in the larger ancient world linked data cloud. Furthermore, these TEI documents may be deconstructed into RDF. Passages about the Macedonian city of Amphipolis may be made available to researchers through the Pelagios Project. Similarly, a user viewing a particular coin in our collection database may be read a paragraph about the coin, extracted from a TEI document. Our ultimate goal is to create an improved research experience for our users, allowing them to traverse seamlessly from one service to another, whether they begin their search within the ANS project network or arrive from external sources, like Pelagios.

Moderators
Speakers
EG

Ethan Gruber

American Numismatic Society | Twitter: @ewg118 | | Academia: http://numismatics.academia.edu/EthanGruber


Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Bibliotheca

14:30

14:45

S07-08 Enhancing evidence and re-evaluating interpretations with 3DGIS and image-based 3D replicas: The case of Borggade (Denmark)
Enhancing evidence and re-evaluating interpretations with 3DGIS and image-based 3D replicas: the case of Borggade (Denmark)

Matteo Pilati

Abstract
This paper illustrates a 3DGIS solution for the integration of image-based 3D recording in the investigation process at the medieval site of Borggade (Denmark). This experience reveals some methodological strengths and theoretical implications of using accurate and detailed 3D replicas of archaeological contexts for the managing of information in the field. Thanks to the reliance on a powerful offsite processing computer and a 4G data transfer connection, it has been possible to dispose of 3D replicas of the documentation surfaces and document them contextually to the excavation process. An entire library of over 150 replicas could be visualized and databased in ESRI’s ArcScene, reproducing documentation surfaces (plans and sections) the way they were shaped, perceived and initially interpreted by the archaeologists in the field. Furthermore, 3DGIS poses the archaeologist also in the position of representing, thus analyzing, the site as it never had existed in reality: the replicas can indeed be rearranged according analytical needs. As concluding remarks, given the accuracy and detail of true-to-reality 3D replicas their implementation can deliver a great amount of information about the site’s structure and the onsite interpretation work; integrated in a 3DGIS environment, this information enhances the evidential and analytical value of documentation, promoting processes of data validation and re-evaluation of interpretations.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:45 - 15:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

14:45

S11-08 Fasti surveys
Fasti Surveys

Elizabeth Fentress, Michael Johnson, Florence Laino, Stuart Eve

Abstract
The Fasti platform has proved so useful for the quick registration and retrieval of excavations in participating countries that we have decided to clone it for other types of data, creating a trinity of Fasti applications – Excavation, Conservation and Survey. Of these, Fasti Archaeological Conservation has been easily fit onto the original model, substituting conservation projects for sites, and objects for the excavations. Fasti Survey presents other challenges, however, including the serving of polygons for regional surveys, crowd sourcing, and very unequal projects. We have thus devised a two-level website, in which the first, like Fasti Archaeological Excavations, simply provides an overview of each project, complete with its bibliography. We have an enormous head start in the sharing of the data from 320 projects already compiled by the project MAGIS (Mediterranean Archaeology GIS, http://www.iosa.it/2007/05/17/magis-mediterranean-archaeology-gis/) generously shared with us by Pedar Foss and Rebecca Schindler. The second level will serve data from participating projects. The Fasti Excavation data is mapped to CIDOC-CRM(Archaeo) and the Survey application will benefit from this and the new terms that it introduces. For project data in the second level, contributors will be responsible for mapping their data model to the CIDOC-CRM spine.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:45 - 15:10
Domus Media, Aulaen

14:45

S21-08 Pelagios Commons: Decentralizing the Web of historical data
Pelagios Commons: Decentralizing the Web of Historical Data

Leif Isaksen, Simon Rainer, Pau de Soto Cañamares, Elton T. E. Barker

Abstract
Pelagios is an international initiative concerned with the development of Linked Open Data (LOD) methods, tools and services so as to better interconnect the vast and ever-growing range of historical resources online. In particular it associates place references within those resources to online gazetteers that offer URI-based identifiers for such places. Some of its major outputs have been the development of Recogito, a tool for semantically annotating place references in images and texts, and Peripleo, a service for visualizing and exploring the graph of data that these annotations form. 

In parallel with these developments a community of practitioners has started to form with interests in a range of related activities: the annotation of curated or third-party content; the production of specialist gazetteers; the integration of place annotations with those of people, periods and things; and the visualization and analysis of graph-based data, to name but a few. Since its early stages Pelagios has made concerted efforts to consult and support such stakeholders, but as it has grown new opportunities and challenges have emerged. In particular we have established that within a heritage context, LOD’s principal advantage is its ability to relate independently maintained projects without requiring centralization. But what are the social ramifications of such an approach? In a world in which funding, academic legitimacy, intellectual property, and even conference presentations assume the authority of individuals and institutions, can LOD communities ever scale effectively?

This paper reports on early developments within Pelagios Commons, a new phase of Pelagios which focuses explicitly on addressing technical and social decentralization within Web-based projects of this nature. It will present our experiences in establishing Special Interest Groups, and the different challenges faced in devolving LOD architectures. It will also seek to foster discussion and critique from those planning or implementing similar community-driven projects.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 14:45 - 15:10
Domus Bibliotheca

15:10

Coffee break
Coffee points in the Domus Academica, Professorboligen and the Frokostkjelleren

Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:10 - 15:30
Coffee point

15:30

S07-09 In the fields and on the screens. 3D documentation for the excavations at Paphos Agora, Cyprus
In the fields and on the screens. 3D documentation for the excavations at Paphos Agora, Cyprus.

Kasper Jan Hanus, Łukasz Miszk, Wojciech Ostrowski, Weronika Winiarska

Abstract
Paphos Agora Project’s fieldwork revolve around (currently) four trenches. The nature of excavations at ancient classical city makes the documentation extremely challenging task due to vast quantity of unearthed portable antiquities, mostly pottery shreds and complicated stratigraphical relations of the architecture. There are some universal requirements for the field documentation: it should be as close to “the reality” as possible, yet the recording process can not be too time consuming. Furthermore, acknowledging the digital revolution in archaeology, the documentation shall be easily transferable to GIS software. Thus, in order to go “beyond” the limitations of drawing documentation we have decided to test the utility of close range photogrammetry while documenting successive stratigraphic lots. This approach was tested during the excavations at the site of Paphos, Western Cyprus. 
The following pipeline was implemented: archaeological exploration - digital documentation - field interpretation. This workflow proved to be both accurate and time effective. Achieved accuracy of the models made out of close range photogrammetry were accurate enough to be directly imported to GIS software, furthermore the quickness of this method resolved the problem of the “bottleneck” - as usually drawing documentation is quite time consuming.
2D (ortophotoplans) and 2.5D (DEMs) documentation of every excavation lot was uploaded into GIS database, creating the base for further interpretation. As well the interpretation process can be supported by creation of textured 3D models of the trench, that could be prepared for every stage of the excavations. This integrated approach is in our opinion a powerful tool to create a digital representation of the archaeological site for documentation and interpretation purposes.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:30 - 15:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

15:30

S09-01 Is that a good concept?
Is that a good concept?

Stephen Stead, Martin Doerr, George Bruseker, Maria Daskalaki

Abstract
This paper draws on the experience of the 20 years of development of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (now an ISO standard) to look at what constitutes a good concept. That is what are the characteristics of a concept that will form a robust part of a useful ontology.
It first discusses the characteristics of Knowledge, Information and Data. From these characteristics it draws the conclusion that shared Interpretation Functions are required to induce Knowledge in an audience. 
Concepts act as such shared functions and so must have a solid definition. The paper continues by identifying and characterising the four foundational elements of such a definition: Arena, Purpose, Intension (spelt with an s!) and Potential. We then go on to describe the four components of the concepts Intension, namely Identity, Substance, Unity and Existence.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Stephen Stead

Stephen Stead

Director, Paveprime Ltd
Member of the CIDOC CRM-SIG. | Should talk to me about the new CRMinf extension


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:30 - 15:55
Professorboligen, stallen

15:30

S17-01 Transport and trade: An energyscape model and transport network approach for trade in Roman times
Transport and Trade: an energyscape model and transport network approach for trade in Roman times

Devi Taelman, Dimitrij Mlekuž

Abstract
Movement of goods is vital in all human societies. Complex societies are characterised by an increased importance of movement as the production of goods tends to be distributed geographically among all members/cities of the society. Roman society is particularly known for its well-developed trade systems where goods – such as food, wine, olive oil, pottery and stone – were moved in enormous quantities and over long distances.

We believe that the distribution of bulky and heavy goods is particularly related to the cost of their transport and that physical geography can be a major constraint to this transport. While Roman water transport has already received significant scholarly attention, land transport is studied only superficially. Many urban centres could, however, not be reached without land transport. Land transport was thus inevitable and formed an integral part of Roman trade.
In this paper, we present different energyscape models for depicting the predicted energy costs of transporting heavy loads by land. The resulting energy networks are compared to identify differences in the structures and the focal points of the networks, such as changes in the location of distribution hubs or changes in the locations of critical intermediary sites that determine the direction, quantity and volume of flow and therefore critically contribute to the cost of moving and trading heavy loads. This approach allows for a better evaluation of how land transport could have acted as a structuring variable for the Roman landscape and the Roman economy.
As a case study, the trade of marble in Central Adriatic Italy in Roman times is selected. Stone resources suitable for ornamental use did not occur in central Adriatic Italy and thus had to be imported. The marble assemblages of several Roman towns in the area are compared with the results of the energyscape models and transport networks.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:30 - 15:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

15:30

S27-01 GIS-based data integration for mapping paleoenvironments
GIS-based data integration for mapping paleoenvironments

Christian Willmes, Daniel Becker, Michael Märker, Volker Hochschild, G. Bareth

Abstract
Maps depicting environments as they were in a certain time of the past, are a very useful tools for researchers working on questions concerning these time periods. Those paleoenvironment maps contextualize data in a defined spatio-temporal frame. For example, to visualize an archaeological finds database containing data of the Alleröd-Interstadial time period, it is desirable to contextualize the find sites on a map displaying according topographic features like glaciation extends and coast lines, and if possible climatic and vegetation regimes of the given time in the region of interest. 
Paleoenvironmental studies, and according facts (data) are abundantly published in the scientific record. But GIS based paleoenvironmental datasets are relatively scarce. For the here presented project, we present how to acquire and produce GIS datasets from published non-GIS based facts and informations, such as analogous maps, textual informations or figures of scientific publications, and collect them in a database. This database consists of the metadata describing the paleoenvironmental data sources, that allows to query for spatial and temporal features.
This way we aim to make more paleoenvironmental data accessible for GIS based analyses and map creation. Another benefit of the GIS approach is the access to well developed data exchange and data integration techniques, known as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Open Web Services (OWS). 
Based on these OGC OWS a collaboration (MÄRKER ET AL. 2015) between the CRC806-Database (WILLMES ET AL. 2014) and ROCEEH ROAD (MÄRKER ET AL. 2009) is setup, to exchange GIS data. The presentation will detail technicals of the collaboration between ROAD and CRC806-Database, and will show the data collection workflows and details of data management, as well es some paleoenvironment maps, that were produced in this endeavour. 

MÄRKER, M., KANAEVA, Z. & HOCHSCHILD, V. (2009): Multidisciplinary Integrative Georelational Database for Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Expansion Dynamics of Early Humans. In: FRISCHER B. & GUIDI, G.: Proceedings of CAA, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA. 18.-22.03.2009.
MÄRKER, M., WILLMES, C., HOCHSCHILD, V., BARETH, G. (2015): How to exchange data between DB Systems on Early Humans. A case study based on the SFB 806 DB and the ROCEEH ROAD system. CRC806-Database, University of Cologne, DOI: 10.5880/SFB806.11
WILLMES, C., KÜRNER, D. AND BARETH, G. (2014), Building Research Data Management Infrastructure using Open Source Software. Transactions in GIS, 18: 496–509. doi: 10.1111/tgis.12060.

Moderators
VH

Volker Hochschild

Head of Geoinformatics, Universitaet Tuebingen

Speakers
avatar for Christian WILLMES

Christian WILLMES

PhD Student, Researcher, University of Cologne


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:30 - 15:55
Domus Bibliotheca

15:55

S07-10 Closing a gap with simple toy. How using a tablet affected documentation workflow on the Rozprza ring-fort excavation

Closing a gap with simple toy. How using a tablet affected documentation workflow on the Rozprza ring-fort excavation.

Jerzy Sikora, Piotr Kittel

Abstract
The use of digital documentation, including image-based 3D techniques allows to reduce the role of traditional and time-consuming manual drawings. However it significantly shortens the process of obtaining data in the field, it also need long time for digital processing of images. In fact, this situation is nothing new. Older researchers probably still remember that similar challenges were connected with a traditional archaeological photography of pre-digital era.
During the excavation on the medieval ring-fort and motte in Rozprza 2D and 3D photogrammetric documentation and integration of the results in GIS was widely used, eliminating traditional forms of field documentation. It was particularly important in extreme wet conditions of work in the bottom of Luciąża river valley. Popular Agisoft PhotoScan software and QGIS georepherence module as well as a set of open source graphical raster and vector applications were used.
The key role was the appropriate organization of the field work involving the parallel excavation of several sections by limited team. As a result, it was possible to flip explorers and equipment in situations where it was necessary to suspend work in the section, until the end of documentation process.
An important facilitation was to support the process by using popular tablet on Android OS. It allowed the application of interpretation layers directly onto earlier prepared orthophotos, with direct contact with documented structures. At the same time descriptive documentation and registration of stratigraphic relationships were performed, using a custom Strati5 app, based on a spreadsheet. This way the field documentation based on 3D techniques became a series of actions implemented routinely at the completion of the exploration of the another layer or preparation of the another cross-section. Simple and cheap tablet helped to close the gap between gathering of field data and later processing and interpretations.

The research project has been financed by grants from The National Science Centre based on the decision No. "DEC-2013/11/B/HS3/03785".


Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Jerzy SIKORA

Jerzy SIKORA

Faculty Member, Institute of Archaeology, University of Lodz (Poland)


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

15:55

S09-02 Towards a formalisation of spatio─temporal relationships in chronometric databases
Towards a formalisation of spatio-temporal relationships in chronometric databases

Igor Bogdanović, Capuzzo Giacomo, Berta Morell, Juan Antonio Barceló Àlvarez

Abstract
In this paper we address the possible ways to manage and explain spatio-temporal information to reconstruct the duration of historical events. The way in which we represent absolute dating and the formalisms that describe the stratigraphic relationships and spatial coordinates, have a great impact on how historical knowledge is constructed. In this paper we found a database model for radiocarbon dated and georeferenced archaeological contexts and findings, and we analyse the languages and notations, i.e. studying vocabularies, conceptualizations, ontologies and relationships. The paper is based on previous team-work on databases of radiocarbon dated archaeological contexts: Prehistory of Northeastern Iberian Peninsula (http://www.mac.cat/eng/ Research/Catalunya-C14), Bronze Age of Southwestern Europe (the EUBAR - Capuzzo 2014) and other relevant case studies (Bogdanovic et al. 2013, Morell et al., in press.). To create an integrated data base in which chronometric dating of isotopic events are related with the archaeological contexts, we propose data model based on the inference chain:
Isotopic event Depositional event  Archaeological event  Historical event.
In this way, each isotope event is related with its corresponding depositional events taking into account stratigraphic and taphonomic information of each dated sample. Defining context reliability is a fundamental step for obtaining a true relation between the radiocarbon probability intervals and the depositional event we are referring to. A particular logical connection should be found within the isotopically determined calendar dates of all determinable death events within the same depositional event. The estimated calendar date and duration of all depositional events within the same archaeological event will be used to measure the date and duration of events higher in the hierarchy. The calculated calendar date and duration of all archaeological events within a single historical event should be used to compute an estimation of the initial and final position of events within the historical period.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Professorboligen, stallen

15:55

S11-10 Best practices to re-use remote sensing data coming from marine geophysical surveys for the 3D reconstruction of underwater archaeological deep-sites
Best practices to re-use remote sensing data coming from marine geophysical surveys for the 3D reconstruction of underwater archaeological deep-sites

Manuela Ritondale, Gaia Pavoni, Roberto Scopigno, Marco Callieri, Matteo Dellepiane

Abstract
Since several decades, underwater archaeology takes advantage of the tools available for marine geophysics to map, document and monitoring the seabed. Impressive levels of details have been reached in underwater photogrammetry. Nonetheless, a huge amount of data has been collected in the past with several different purposes and with rather different technologies. The aforementioned materials, particularly those coming from commercial archaeology, is underexplored and might be re-used and optimized by using digital technologies to enhance the accessibility of underwater sites through virtual reconstructions.
Our goal is, on one hand, to investigate the technical and the legal/bureaucratic constraints that prevent the re-use of remote sensing data coming from geophysical marine surveys. On the other side, we propose a solution to reuse stills images and video data acquired with ROVs-based surveys of archaeological sites (characterized by non-homogeneous quality and resolution), aimed at obtaining 3D image-based models. 
Our approach uses standard photogrammetric solutions, but is based on specific pre-processing and enhancements of the input raw data. In the first pre-processing phase, we propose an automatic frame extraction algorithm working on video streams, able to reject the damaged or non-useful frames and to select the more proper for 3D reconstruction, taking into account all the best practices for an optimal photogrammetric reconstruction. In the second phase, we apply underwater-specific image enhancement filters to either images or video frames to sharpen useful details and to correct undesirable aspects for a good reconstruction like color absorption and blur. 
Practical examples and first results will be discussed.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Marco Callieri

Marco Callieri

researcher @ Visual computing Lab, ISTI-CNR, ISTI-CNR
3DHOP Apostle -- Meshlab Cultist


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

15:55

S12-10 Multimodal data fusion for the non-destructive assessment of the Baptistery di San Giovanni in Florence, Italy
Fusion of 2D and 3D Imaging Data for the Non-Destructive Assessment of the Baptistery di San Giovanni in Florence, Italy

Michael Hess, Michael Yeager, Vid Petrovic, Falko Kuester

Abstract
Three-dimensional data capture has long enabled visually compelling renderings of target environments, but in most cases the generated data are not utilized to their fullest potential for scientific analysis and interpretation. In addition to realistic rendering, 3D data streams from techniques like laser scanning and photogrammetry can be used for analysis of raw 3D point data and they can also serve as a digital scaffold which can be used to spatially anchor other data streams into one holistic model that serves as the digital surrogate. A case study at the Baptistery di San Giovanni in Florence, Italy is discussed here, wherein multiple 2D and 3D non-destructive techniques were used to digitally document the monument in order to study its construction. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to measure accurate, high-resolution geometry throughout the structure. Portions of the raw data were analyzed in order to quantify and visualize the effects of centuries of structural changes and aging. The dense set of 3D coordinates also serves as the geometric scaffold used to anchor thermal imaging, ground penetrating radar and photogrammetry data. The analyzed point data as well as the data from the other imaging modalities can now be visualized together within the entire laser scanning model of the Baptistery. The utilized visualization environment allows for interactive exploration and manipulation of the holistic digital surrogate. Interactive visualization of the data enables more effective communication of the imaging results to stakeholders and facilitates collaboration with different domain experts for further analysis and interpretation of the multimodal data. The presented methodology for multimodal data fusion can be repeated to incorporate other data types and the flexible visualization environment supports the evolution and growth of input data.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers
avatar for Michael Hess

Michael Hess

Ph.D. Student, University of California, San Diego
I am a structural engineering Ph.D. student and I am a part of a multidisciplinary team of engineers, scientists, and archaeologists working to document, visualize and analyze pieces of cultural heritage. The goal of my research is to use non-destructive imaging techniques such as LiDAR, thermal imaging and geo-radar in order to document and assess the state of health of historical structures. My hope is to develop diagnostic methodologies that... Read More →


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

15:55

S17-02 A network model for the evolution of terrestrial connections in Central Italy (1175/1150─500 BC ca)
A network model for the evolution of terrestrial connections in Central Italy (1175/1150-500 BC ca)

Luce Prignano, Francesca Fulminante, Sergi Lozano, Ignacio Morer

Abstract
The period between the Final Bronze Age and the Archaic Age is a time of changes and developments in the Italian Peninsula which led to the creation of regional ethnic and political groups and to the formation of the first city-states in Western Europe.

We study the evolution of the interaction patterns among settlements by analysing terrestrial communication networks in Latium Vetus (LV) and Southern Etruria (SE) in several time snapshots.
At a first overall inspection, the two regions appear to be very similar, except for some interesting differences. In order to understand to what extent the observed results are a consequence of either differences on the spatial distribution of settlements, or dissimilarities in the process that generated those networks (cultural and political factors), we design a simple network model. After locating the nodes at the positions we know them from the archaeological record, we start adding links where they are more needed, according to a geographical criterion. The total link length is the only data-derived constraint.
The model reproduces with good accuracy the features of every real network, except for LV in the Early Iron Age, where it systematically underestimate the average shortest path length while overestimating the local efficiency.
Our hypothesis is that this model, that implements an optimal resources (new roads) distribution, cannot reproduce structures shaped by the unbalanced tensions of a harsh competition such as the Latin region of those times. On the contrary, it works fine in the case of a heterarchical system, such SE, or when considering a centralized, hierarchical one, as LV in the Archaic Period. We measured the hierarchicity (Trusina et. al - 2004) of both real and artificial networks as a preliminary test obtaining results compatible with this explanation.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

15:55

S27-02 Endangered archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa: The development of a spatial database
Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa: the development of a spatial database

richard jennings

Abstract
Archaeological sites across the Middle East and North Africa are under ever increasing risk from a range of threats such as growing population sizes, increased agricultural production, urban development, warfare and looting. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa project (Eamena), which is based at the University of Oxford and the University of Leicester and is supported by the Arcadia Fund, is in the process of recording endangered sites, many of them unrecorded, from across this region using satellite imagery and aerial photography. The project collaborates with cultural heritage institutions in different countries as well as scientific researchers and all people with a strong interest in the preservation of its rich archaeological heritage. 

In this presentation we discuss the development of the spatial database, which underpins the aims and objectives of the project. It is built using the Arches cultural heritage management system, a freely customisable open source software package that complies with to international recording standards. A number of key stages formed part of the database development, including setting out what types of data to record, what terms would make up the semantic vocabularies, ensuring that the structure conformed to CiDOC CRM standards, uploading of legacy datasets and the integration of satellite imagery. The aim is to produce a database that will be publically accessible and is designed to be used by a network of well trained staff in the region, with the skills to record and manage sensitive archaeological sites and landscapes, to ensure that the cultural heritage will be managed in the future.

Moderators
VH

Volker Hochschild

Head of Geoinformatics, Universitaet Tuebingen

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 15:55 - 16:20
Domus Bibliotheca

16:20

S07-11 The documentation of Neolithic flint mines―An experimentation of methods
The documentation of Neolithic flint mines – an experimentation of methods

Åsa Berggren, Anders Gutehall

Abstract
What is the best method to document a site of numerous pits, the result of a complex sequence of digging and filling, cutting and reopening holes in the ground in search of flint during the Early Neolithic?

During an excavation of Neolithic flint mines in 2014 in the area of Södra Sallerup in Malmö, Sweden, we experimented with various methods to document the mines in plan. These methods are now being evaluated. In addition a comparison to methods used to record the mines during the decades long history of excavations in the area is also executed.

The methods used were hand drawing on paper, digital planning with GPS, orthophotography, and photogrammetry. This paper discusses the evaluation of these methods and the impact of the methods on the process of interpretation.

Archaeological documentation methods have developed quickly during the last decades, digital techniques have become increasingly accessible and affordable. The increased use of these methods affects the prerequisites of archaeological interpretation and consequently the knowledge that is produced. However, this shift is seldom problematised or analysed.

The development of methods often takes place within research projects, with carefully chosen objects. However, we were able to use a choice of methods within a contract archaeology project, albeit with additional means from a research fund supporting the evaluation. The objects are typical of developer funded archaeology, not visible above ground, quite different from standing remains of architecture often regarded as suitable for research experiments of digital documentation.

In addition to adjusting the method to the recorded object, our results show that quite low tech digital solutions can go a long way towards achieving a detailed and relevant record. As each method seem to capture slightly different aspects, a combination of methods also seems preferable.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:20 - 16:45
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

16:20

S11-11 Digging into and re-using image data for archaeology
Digging into and re-using image data for archaeology

Christopher Power, Andrew Lewis, Helen Petrie, Julian Richards, Katie Green, Mark Eramian, Ekta Walia, Brittany Chan, Isaac Sijaranamual, Maarten de Rijke

Abstract
Each year thousands of archaeological field studies are undertaken. One of the resources with the largest potential to help archaeologists in their work is the hundreds of photographs that are taken during field studies. These photos, which can now be labelled with captions and uploaded to repositories direct from the field, could open new possibilities for re-use in many research tasks. Unfortunately, the potential of these resources has not yet been realised. Due to time pressure and lack of personnel, most photos do not have appropriate content-related metadata associated with them. While it is possible to identify what collection an image is from, or where it was taken using GPS coordinates, knowing what is actually in the image is often impossible. Even if tools were available to provide such content-related metadata, it is unlikely that the person power would be available to provide this metadata for the thousands of photos that already exist in digital form. The DADAISM Project is addressing this issue by using a mixed-initiative approach, where the deep domain knowledge of the archaeologist can be used to identify a number of key features in an image, and then automated processing can identify images that are similar, digging into the image data and extracting relevant information from the content. These identified images can then be re-used by archaeologists for their research, or even automatically labelled with appropriate content-related metadata. The new data created from this labelling can then be published to improve the robustness of searches by other archaeologists during their research. This paper will present preliminary results from the DADAISM Project on the identification of images in two specific archaeological domains, flint tools and Anglo-Scandinavian brooches, and will also present the interactive system to enable archaeologists to work with the DADAISM image identification system.

Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:20 - 16:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

16:20

S12-11 The Exedra of Goreme OAM: An ocean of points to be explored
The Exedra of Goreme OAM: an ocean of points to be explored

Marco Carpiceci, Carlo Inglese, Fabio Colonnese

Abstract
From 2013 the research unit of Rome has been developing the architectural survey of the Open Air Museum of Goreme in Cappadocia. After examining individual rock-cut complexes, this unit is currently focusing on the spatial and functional relationships of homogeneous structures. This paper deals with a specific area located in the southern part of the Museum: it is a semicircular rock cliff that separates the inhabited area from the plateau. This sort of natural exedra is characterized by the presence of several artificial cavities, including churches, refectories and service areas which by virtue of their typological variety, constitute autonomous groups and form a sort of urban settlement. The churches are the settlements’ key elements around which communities built their meeting and shelter facilities. In many cases the identification of the functions and connections along the paths allows to mark sharp separations between the groups. This is the case of Cariali Kilise, the Karanlik Kilise and S.Onofrio; in other cases, such as the Pantocrator Kilise and Malta Hacli Kilise, their widespread distribution tempers this separation.
The tufa surface of the exedra has been surveyed through laser scans assembled into a single point cloud. The texture of the painted surfaces has been further surveyed by recording the reflectance value during the night time in order to prevent the chiaroscuro data distortion caused by sunlight variations.
Downstream of the surveying activities, the group is working on specific representations, such as plants for contour lines and sections for equidistant plane curves. This kind of representations is particularly effective for the rock-cut habitat, because it allows an objective reading and clearly shows the constructive and distribution relations among the rooms separated by meters of rock.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:20 - 16:45
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

16:20

S26-01 Seeing things differently. The use of combined geochemical and geophysical prospection techniques to investigate early Islamic town planning
Seeing things differently. The use of combined geochemical and geophysical prospection techniques to investigate early Islamic town planning.

Kate Welham, Derek Pitman, Chloe Duckworth, David Govantes - Edwards, Yvette Barbier, Ricardo Cordoba de Llave

Abstract
This paper examines the combination of in-situ portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF – Niton XL3TGOLDD+), and geophysical survey data obtained from the 10th century, early Islamic site of Madinat al-Zahra in Cordoba, Spain. The work presented here forms part of a larger research project that investigates the key role that glass, ceramic, and metal production had in the creation of urban centres, and the important question of technology transfer between Muslim, Christian and Jewish groups within Spain and in the wider Mediterranean at this time.
Preliminary results are presented that demonstrate how this novel approach to site-wide prospection has identified a range of likely production areas within the medina (city) at Madinat al-Zahra. Elemental 'hotspots' obtained from a relatively coarse pXRF survey of the top-soil at the site are seen to be directly linked to substantive magnetic anomalies that have geophysical signatures suggestive of high-temperature activities. Iron working and probable ceramic production were located, and specifically areas of elevated lead, copper and manganese were found to be linked to the remains of furnaces that may have produced the famous glazed ceramics known to be manufactured on the site. The results move beyond enabling a more nuanced approach to the interpretation of geophysical datasets, and towards an integrated archaeological prospection tool on a site-wide level.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:20 - 16:45
Professorboligen, stallen

16:20

S27-03 Management of raster data and their dynamic visualization within the ROCEEH─ROAD System
Management of raster data and their dynamic visualization within the ROCEEH-ROAD System

Michael Maerker, Volker Hochschild

Abstract
In the recent past data base systems providing information on early humans and their environment are becoming more and more important and increase rapidly in number. The main aim of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities project entitled “The role of culture in early human expansions (ROCEEH)" is to assess the spreading "out of Africa" in a spatial, cultural and biological context. Implicitly we suppose as working hypothesis that the influence of changing environmental conditions decreased as the importance of cultural and technological innovations grew. The ROCEEH project deals with a variety of variables and formats from geology, geomorphology, palaeontology and archaeology in vector, raster as well as text formats. To achieve the general objectives a georelational spatial information system was developed and implemented. The system is called “The ROCEEH Out of Africa Database (ROAD)”. In this paper we focus especially on raster data and their dynamic visualization in order to assess landscape evolution. 
The ROAD georelational database was designed as flexible as possible to store manipulate and visualize geographic spatial data. Therefore open source software based on the OGC standards was implemented. Moreover, we provide several web map and web processing services based on a backbone structure with a specific raster data management. The latter allow the visualization of dynamic features in landscape evolution such as topography changes or sea level changes. 
The acceptance of a database related to early human expansion studies depend very much on the capabilities to explore and visualize the data and to results in a dynamic way. Thus, different levels of interaction must be provided with the system in order to fulfill the manifold user requests.

Moderators
VH

Volker Hochschild

Head of Geoinformatics, Universitaet Tuebingen

Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:20 - 16:45
Domus Bibliotheca

16:45

S07-12 Back and Forth through the contexts: 3D Geographic Information Systems in support of field documentation
Back and Forth through the Contexts: 3D Geographic Information Systems in Support of Field Documentation

Nicolo' Dell'Unto, Giacomo Landeschi, Jan Apel

Abstract
The use of three-dimensional (3D) models in support of intra-site investigation activities represents an important novelty in archaeological practice. Unlike interpretative drawings, which provide a schematic and symbolic description of the site, three-dimensional models have the capacity to display the full qualities of a context immediately upon exposure, providing a high qualitative geometric description of the site at any specific time frame of the investigation activity. Among the different workflows of 3D data acquisition that have been presented in literature, a very few case studies actually discussed the impact that this new typology of data has on archaeological practice. Since 2014, archaeological investigation activities have been carried out at the Mesolithic site of Kämpinge (Southern Sweden) by the department of Archaeology and Ancient History at Lund University. The documentation activity performed so far has been completely recorded in three dimensions and managed in the field by a 3D Geographic Information System (3D GIS). 
In specific, by employing tablet PCs and field laptops, 3D models (as a result of image-based 3D modelling techniques) were georeferenced and used in the trench in aid of the field documentation. The possibility of taking advantage of a 3D real time platform capable of providing a spatio-temporal overview of the sequence of contexts retrieved at different stages of the investigation allowed the achievement of a completely different perception of the site. 
This paper will present and discuss the results of this experimentation, focusing on how the systematic use of a fully-3D visualization system in support of archaeological practice affects field interpretation, excavation strategies and knowledge production.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

16:45

S11-12 A data integration infrastructure for archaeology
A data integration infrastructure for archaeology

Dimitris Gavrilis, Eleni Afiontzi, Johan Fihn, Olof Olsson, Sebastian Cuy, Achille Felicetti, Franco Niccolucci

Abstract
Most infrastructure projects, both recent and ongoing, involve a data aggregation task in order to bring together the heterogeneous information one expects to see in a typical EU landscape. The main reason for this is the plethora of technologies, standards, languages and practices that is found in the EU. Data aggregation typically includes the homogenization of heterogenous data through some kind of process that includes: ingestion, normalization, transformation and validation processes. The European funded project Ariadne (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu/) aims at true integration of data by modelling the underlying domain and provding the technical framework for automatic integration of heterogeneous resources. 

This infrastructure, comprises of a set of heterogeneous technologies such as: a metadata aggregator, including a set of enrichment and data integration micro-services, an RDF store with reasoning capabilities (through SPARQL), and a powerful indexing mechanism. The output of this process is published to a portal which can provide useful information to a variety of potential users ranging from simple visitors to domain researchers. 

The data integration services can mine for links among resources, link them together and against language resources such as vocabularies. Complex records can be split into their individual components, represented, enriched and stored separately while maintaing their identity using semantic linking. These individual components are represented in the underlying model (ACDM) and include agents, language resources, datasets, collections, reports, databases, etc. Each integrated resource is assigned a URI and is published in RDF. This practice enables knowledge mining, semantic queries and reasoning engines which are provided within the project (e.g. SPARQL engine and Jena). 

The technical infrastructure has been developed using various programming languages such as Java, PHP, Javascript, it is distributed spanning multiple virtual machines and brings together different established technologies and components. The portal is based on the Laravel PHP framework and uses ElasticSearch search engine to collect and browse through the data. Both the technical infrastructure and the portal will be presented and demonstrated in more detail.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Domus Media, Aulaen

16:45

S12-12 Enhancing archaeological interpretation with volume calculations. An integrated method of 3D recording and modeling
Enhancing archaeological interpretation with volume calculations. An integrated method of 3d recording and modeling.

Giulio Poggi, Mirko Buono

Abstract
Digital surveying technologies have nowadays found extensive application in Archaeology, enhancing the quantity and quality of data collected in the documentation of the archaeological assets. Besides the great communicative qualities, 3D data stores precisely the geometric information of a scene, enabling area and volume calculations.

In this paper we present two case studies in which area and volume calculations (on data from 3D survey and on 3D data processed and modeled through the tools and the principles of Virtual Archaeology) have achieved consistent results for the research and the archaeological interpretation. Moreover, the 3D modeling process creates virtual reconstructions that are essential to verify the likelihood of some hypotheses and represents a powerful means of communication for disclosure.

In the first case we studied a rocky outcrop by the medieval archaeological site of Canonica di San Niccolò (Montieri, Italy) where the particular shape of the context was, at first, interpreted as a mine entrance. The integration between different data coming from the 3D documentation of the outcrop, the excavation and the geological analysis has allowed the 3D reconstruction of the original shape of the outcrop, which must have looked like a wide rock shelter, today collapsed. This new interpretation was enhanced and confirmed by area and volume calculations, which have enabled the accurate quantification of the amount of space available for a living floor in the rock shelter.

In the second case the method was applied in order to study the relations between the collapsed parts of a productive building and the destruction layers in the deposit of an archaeological excavation. Without any archaeological comparison for this type of building, the volume of the layers was used to estimate the volume of the collapsed parts and to reconstruct in 3D the original height of the walls and their complete shape.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers
avatar for Giulio Poggi

Giulio Poggi

Studente, Università di Siena


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

16:45

S17-04 Comparison of regional and local transport networks in 17th and 19th century AD pre-colonial stone-walled structures in the southern Gauteng Province, South Africa
Comparison of regional and local transport networks in 17th and 19th century AD pre-colonial stone-walled structures in the southern Gauteng Province, South Africa

karim sadr

Abstract
Since 2008, as part of the South African National Research Foundation funded 'Southern Gauteng Stone Walled Structures' project a dozen postgraduate research assistants in Archaeology and Geography at Wits University, along with another dozen photo interpreters employed at SBL Geospatial Services in Cochin, India, have pored over freely available satellite images of an >8000 sq km study area between Johannesburg and the Vaal River using Google Earth software. Over 5000 pre-colonial stone-walled structures (SWS) have been detected and classified. This presentation focuses on the Group I and Group II pre-colonial SWS, comparing their distribution and probable transport networks within the 8000 square km study area. Group I structures date to the 16th and 17th centuries AD and represent the earliest Iron Age settlements in the study area. Previous studies on a restricted sample of Group I SWS suggest they represent a relatively egalitarian, more pastorally oriented society with a relatively dispersed settlement pattern. Group II structures date to the late 18th and early 19th centuries AD and are generally regarded as representing fairly complex and densely nucleated societies of Tswana-speakers in the immediately pre-colonial era. 
Using spatial modelling and analysis techniques, such as GIS-based cost surface and social network analysis, an attempt is made to compare the probable transport networks of Group I and II SWS at the local and regional scales. This involves the application of transport network modelling in the same landscape and environment but on two separate chronological periods. Combined with quantitative analysis, the aim is to see how the proposed differences in social, economic and political organization of Group I and II SWS that were ascertained through standard settlement pattern studies, might be reflected in their respective transport networks.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

16:45

S26-02 Pipes, pedalis and portable X-ray fluorescence: New avenues for the study of Roman building materials
Pipes, Pedalis and Portable X-ray Fluorescence: new avenues for the study of Roman building materials

Derek Pitman, Mark Brisbane, Paul Cheetham, Miles Russell, John Beavis, Rob Symmons, Stephen Clews, Susan Fox, Maurice Tucker

Abstract
This paper presents aspects of the ‘Building Roman Britain’ project which aims to use rapid, non-destructive chemical analysis to explore the procurement, production and use of building materials in early Roman Britain. Specifically, it focuses on the development of an analytical framework that employs portable X-ray fluorescence to target specific questions regarding the production and use of ceramic building material (CBM) from Fishbourne Roman Palace and the Roman Bath Museum.
In the context of Roman Britain, CBM production is a new technology practiced on an industrial scale. Its use could be considered a fundamental expression of Roman identity and the need for high volumes of material in a variety of forms presents interesting questions regarding how production was practiced and organised. CBM is one of the most abundant finds on many Roman sites and yet as an archaeological resource it is comparatively under researched. Its abundance coupled with its generally fragmented state can lead to inconsistent recovery and reporting practices, especially as single sites can produce literally tons of material. This can present significant problems for those tasked with interpreting and curating the material. On occasion, CBM may be preserved in-situ in the form of floors, hypocausts and foundations which represents a significant resource in the presentation of archaeology to the public. This leaves some of the most significant examples of CBM, from a public engagement perspective, inaccessible to lab-based study while there remains an abundance of accessible material that could serve to overwhelm traditional analytical methodologies. 
The work presented here explores these issues through the chemical analysis of samples of known date, form and fabric in order to explore the variation in production/raw material choices coupled with in-situ material in the two museums; giving a new avenue for the characterisation of archaeological material and the interpretation of museum exhibits.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Professorboligen, stallen

16:45

S27-04 Vertical aspects of Stone Age distribution in Norwegian high mountains
Vertical aspects of Stone Age distribution in Norwegian high mountains

Mieko Matsumoto

Abstract
This paper will show how the vertical aspects of Stone Age distribution in Norwegian mountains can be visualized through the museum database. This database system developed used by the Norwegian university museums is by now used for cataloguing all new acquisitions. It also contains metadata for the older part s of the collections. These archaeological collections are available through the website www.unimus.no as open data. As of November 2015, around 900 000 entries can be queried and presented.
The majority of finds are geotagged, and some of the finds are related to posts in the national sites and monuments register, Askeladden. All finds are annotated with different precision levels ranging from precise location over cadastral unit to municipality and county. Some types of analyses can only be done with objects with precise provenience information, while analyses concerning trends within a larger area can use finds with lower precision levels. These precision levels are therefore decisive when choosing objects for the different analyses. 
Our project Dynamic distributions was concentrated on the visualization of large stone artefacts like axes, sickles and daggers in South-East Norway. These finds are mainly from valleys and agricultural areas. The vertical aspect should include the high mountains, and then it is necessary to take other material types into consideration. One important aspect for the find distribution in the high mountains is the fluctuating tree limit. Soon after the end of the Ice Age, the tree limit was much higher than today. Many of the Stone Age sites that today are interpreted as high mountain sites have been below the tree line in a birch and pine forest. The paper will present different visualizations of artefact type and site distribution across the high mountain region.

Moderators
VH

Volker Hochschild

Head of Geoinformatics, Universitaet Tuebingen

Wednesday March 30, 2016 16:45 - 17:10
Domus Bibliotheca

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

S04-P2 Sustainability = separation: Keeping database structure, domain structure and interface independent
Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Ian Johnson

Ian Johnson

Honorary Associate, University of Sydney
Web-based databases and GIS/mapping applied to historical and archaeological applications. Mobile/tablet applications for field data collection and delivery of historical and cultural tours, Augmented Reality, semantic web


Wednesday March 30, 2016 17:10 - 18:00
Domus Media, Aula foyer

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

S11-P1 Combining analytical and digital data in archaeology: Towards a multidisciplinary ontological solution. The Salamis terracottas case study
Moderators
KF

Kate Fernie

Director, 2Culture Associates Ltd
I am a consultant with a background in Archaeology who has been involved in projects involving Europeana and digital libraries since 2004. I am currently the project manager for LoCloud (http://www.locloud.eu), network coordinator for CARARE (http://www.carare.eu) and participate in the ARIADNE research infrastructure (http://www.ariadne-infrastructure.eu). I have been involved in several projects developing technologies to assist curators and... Read More →
avatar for Julian Richards

Julian Richards

Director and Professor, Archaeology Data Service, University of York
avatar for Holly  Wright

Holly Wright

European Projects Manager, Archaeology Data Service
Holly Wright is European Projects Manager at the Archaeology Data Service (ADS); a national archive for archaeological data in the UK (archaeologydataservice.ac.uk), based in the Department of Archaeology, at the University of York. Her research focusses on field drawing, vector graphics, visualisation, Web design, Web standards and the Semantic Web in archaeology. She currently manages ADS involvement in three European projects, including... Read More →

Speakers

Wednesday March 30, 2016 17:10 - 18:00
Domus Media, Aula foyer

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

17:10

S25-P2 Archives, archaeology, and architecture: A multimedia approach for 3D reconstructions
Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Lauren Massari

Lauren Massari

Multimedia Designer, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities


Wednesday March 30, 2016 17:10 - 18:00
Domus Media, Aula foyer

17:10

17:10

17:30

Conference pub at The Frokostkjeller'n

In north east corner of the University garden there will be a conference pub in the old building called “Frokostkjelleren” (Eng: breakfast cellar). During the day this will be the help center as well as point for serving coffee and lunsj, and in the evening it becomes the conference pub, arranged in cooperation with the law students at the campus. Here you will be able to by some drinks at the same prices offered to students. The pub will be open Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.


Wednesday March 30, 2016 17:30 - 23:00
Frokostkjelleren University garden

18:00

The Viking Ship Museum

On Wednesday 30th March, the CAA Oslo will take you to the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy. As Norway’s most visited tourist attraction, it offers the chance to see the fantastically preserved Viking ships and the other beautifully conserved artefacts from the burials in a unique, purpose built architectural setting.  Travel is by bus, the pickup will be at the University Square (Karl Johansgate) for the short journey to the museum.

In the museum there will be guides giving talks about the famous Viking age finds of Oseberg and Gokstad. A small exhibition on the documentation from the Oseberg excavation in 1904, including the detailed diaries written by the archaeologist Gustafson, will be open in the CAAs honour.  The excursion will take about two hours. Time of departure will be 18:00 and 18:30 from the University square. Time at your name tab indicates your departure time (18:00 or 18:30).


Wednesday March 30, 2016 18:00 - 20:30
Vikingskipshuset Huk Aveny 35, 0287 Oslo
 
Thursday, March 31
 

08:30

S06-01 Automated heritage monitoring software prototype implementing 3D technologies
Automated heritage monitoring software prototype implementing 3D technologies

Rimvydas Laužikas, Albinas Kuncevičius, Tadas Žižiūnas, Egidijus Žilinskas

Abstract
Preservation of urban heritage is one of the main challenges for contemporary society. It’s closely connected with several dimensions: global-local rhetoric, cultural tourism, armed conflicts, immigration, cultural changes, investment flows, new transport infrastructures and etc. Nowadays very often organizations responsible for heritage management constantly have to deal with lack of resources, which are crucial for proper heritage preservation, maintaining and protection. Particularly it is problematic for countries with low GDP or unstable political situation. 
The possible solution of these problems could be automated heritage monitoring software system, based on the 3D technologies. The system prototype was developed and tested by Vilnius University and Terra Modus Ltd. in frame of project “Creation of automated urban heritage monitoring software prototype”. Project financed by Lithuanian Council for Culture. 
At this paper will present the main results of the project. 3D scanning technology is the most accurate method to capture the situation of an evolving cultural heritage object or complex at a given time. As a cultural heritage object or complex is evolving continuously, two 3D point clouds created at different time allow to reliably trace potential changes. Monitoring of large scale heritage complexes such as urban heritage objects is a resource demanding task and in such cases automatic computer-based 3D visual analysis is appropriate. Comparison of 3D visual data captured in different time advances to next level when utilizing methods of 3D photogrammetry which make it possible (at least partially) to create 3D point clouds from old photos, giving us opportunities to expand research by adding empirical data captured before 3D scanning equipment and also lowering costs to conduct such research.


Thursday March 31, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

08:30

S12-13 A new approach for the study and presentation of an archaeological context not traditionally exploitable. Applying a fast but extensive 3D survey to the Bisarcio case study, a Medieval and Post-Medieval cemetery (Sardinia)
A new approach for the study and presentation of an archaeological context not traditionally exploitable. Applying a fast but extensive 3D survey to the Bisarcio case study, a medieval and post-medieval cemetery (Sardinia).

Paola Derudas, Maria Carla Sgarella

Abstract
For some time, photogrammetry and 3D modelling have imposed themselves as prominent among the modern technologies applied to archaeology. Nevertheless, three-dimensional survey of the archaeological heritage hasn't reached, yet, its informative potential in the study phase, due to the fact that its use has been generally restricted to those cases characterized by their exceptionality and monumentality. 
Digging the Bisarcio (Sardinia) late- and post-medieval cemetery was an important opportunity to 3D survey experimentation as a daily instrument for documenting the stratigraphic sequence. Differently from what happens in the most common practical cases (where it is focused on specific findings or areas, or to a specific time frame of the excavation), the 3D survey has been carried out extensively with respect to both space (covering the entire excavation area) and time (daily, throughout the excavation), with the main aim to totally substitute the two-dimensional survey. 
3D modeling, which allows a very accurate and complete recording of the archaeological context, has been useful both in the documentation and analysis stage, and also in the interpretation stage. It has been complemented by the use of the 3DHOP presenter, a helpful tool for the visualization and web publishing of high resolution 3D models, connecting them to the large amount of data collected and interpreted during and after the excavation process. 
This tool gets an added value for the case study here presented: a cemetery context, for which it's not possible to imagine and define a "classic" musealization. Thanks to the presence of the 3D models, and the use of 3DHOP, it was possible to “re-use” the survey data to create an interactive web-based presentation aimed, this time, to the public, to provide a viable way to present and disseminate the results of the excavation to non-experts.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

08:30

Cancelled S17-05 Modelling the road network of central Cappadocia (Turkey): A matter of ‘cost’ and ‘visibility’
Modelling the road network of central Cappadocia (Turkey): a matter of ‘cost’ and ‘visibility’

Jacopo Turchetto

Abstract
Analysing, reconstructing and modelling ancient road networks within a mountainous context is mostly a challenge. Often, several aspects and factors (both anthropic and natural) need to be taken into consideration at the same time, in order to propose a plausible hypothesis as for the route of the roads. 
The exploitation of the potential of Cost Surfaces and the subsequent creation of Least Cost Pathways (LCP) can produce very interesting results, in particular if GIS-derived paths and historical/archaeological proved routes are compared in order to understand which factors could have played a major role in the definition of the layout of those same routes.
In this paper, such a post-dictive approach has been applied to a specific case study, i.e. to the road system of central Cappadocia (Turkey), which is a semi-flat district strongly conditioned by the presence of the volcanic group formed by the Hasan Dağı, Göllü Dağı and Melendiz Dağları.
Moreover, in any consideration of the morphological characters of that Cappadocian landscape, LCP are also combined with another factor, which surely played a central role in the itinerary choices adopted in that territory during the Byzantine era: visibility. In a period of instability, due to the different incursions which, between the 6th and the 9th centuries, made Cappadocia a strategic territory along the frontier line between the Byzantine Empire and its neighbours, the level of visibility (or invisibility) of the roads and from the roads really influenced the ‘history’ of those same ways of communication, together with the various settlements lying around them.
The GIS-based modelling can reasonably explain the change which took place in the communication system of Cappadocia between the Roman and Byzantine periods, allowing to better understand the role and the functions of those road axes, and to evaluate the Byzantine military strategies in central Anatolia.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

08:30

S20-01 Why, when and how? Context and computer vision in archaeological prospection and interpretation
Why, when and how? Context and computer vision in archaeological prospection and interpretation

Dave Cowley, Karsten Lambers, Arianna Traviglia

Abstract
As the session abstract identifies, the debate over applications of semi-automated or supervised feature extraction techniques in archaeology has tended to be polarised between believers and doubters. In large part the polarisation of discussion probably stems from a lack of explicitness about how archaeological feature identification is undertaken and how the processes, whether ‘automated’ or ‘human’, of identifying patterns, shapes and features interrelate with archaeological interpretation. Furthermore, the varying contexts of these processes in multi-scaled archaeological prospection have not necessarily been defined as fully as they might. Such ambiguity is unhelpful to exploration of the potential of new techniques, and the interfaces between traditional archaeological skills/knowledge and emergent tools. It also makes definition of common purpose difficult. This paper will explore these issues, looking to address the reasons why the application of computer vision to archaeological prospection is vital, but also examining the workflows and outcomes of different approaches and processes, both manual and automated. These are important steps in addressing some key questions, including: how can we create clarity about why and when automated approaches are desirable?; what are the roles of (traditional/manual) archaeological experience and skills in designing algorithms?; and how can automated/manual approaches be used iteratively to improve archaeological detection?

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Bibliotheca

08:30

08:55

S02-02 Using geostatistical modeling to solve spatio─temporal questions
Using Geostatistical Modeling to solve Spatio-Temporal Questions

Katia Achino, Juan Antonio Barceló

Abstract
Is it possible to infer where social agents performed their actions and work processes, on the basis of the observed relationships between the actual locations of archaeological material? This is an inverse problem with multiple solutions, and it is in no way simple how to decide between competing solutions. However, the fact that we cannot predict the place of past actions does not mean that social action is indeterministic at some spatial level. On the opposite, social actions should be analyzed as conditioned and/or determined by other actions, because they have been performed in an intrinsically better or worse spatial/temporal location for some purpose because of their position relative to some other location for another action or the reproduction of the same action. 
In this paper we use the spatial coordinates of different kinds of artifacts from the Early Bronze Age site of Villaggio delle Macine (Rome-Italy) to investigate the possible location of different activities (residence, production, use-consumption) and how the spatial distribution of an action has an influence over the spatial distribution of (an)other action(s). Intrasite spatial distributions are analyzed using variograms and related methods of spatial second-order analysis. Second order variation in a spatial pattern is that part of the pattern that may be attributed to interaction effects among elements in the pattern. Alternatively, it is what is left of the pattern once first order variation or trend effects have been removed. Against some back ground trend, the second order effects are more localized variations in pattern intensity. The problem is that each variogram refers to a single archaeological category. A still unresolved problem is how to integrate all we have inferred from separate spatial patterns into a single model. In this paper we suggest using spatially constrained correspondence analysis to study possible communalities and spatial similarity relationships between spatial patterns of different artifact categories.


Thursday March 31, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

08:55

S06-02 A machine learning approach for 3D shape analysis and recognition of archaeological objects
A machine learning approach for 3D shape analysis and recognition of archaeological objects

Diego Jiménez-Badillo, Mario Canul Ku, Salvador Ruíz-Correa, Rogelio Hasimoto-Beltrán

Abstract
Museum professionals all over the world have always shown great interest in acquiring automatic methods to register and analyse the shape of cultural heritage artefacts. Thanks to recent advances in 3D scanning and photogrammetry techniques, it is now possible to model the surface of objects with very little effort and in a relatively short time. 
The continuous adoption of these techniques in cultural institutions has generated thousands if not millions of 3D digital models. Unfortunately, after these resources are produced, very little effort is spent in making them accessible to researchers or the general public. Part of the problem is a lack of efficient computer mechanisms to search, retrieve and classify 3D data.
The conventional way to search and retrieve 3D models consists in composing a query based on text descriptions. However, textual annotations are necessarily constrained by the database application domain, ontology, etc., as well as by language and other factors. Consequently they are inadequate for shape oriented searches. 
This paper presents results of an on-going project focused on developing a computer platform to automatize the search, retrieval, recognition and analysis of 3D object models. The platform processes queries based on geometric properties instead of text. Simply stated, the computer program takes a 3D surface mesh as input (i.e. the query model). Then, a search engine compares it to hundreds or even thousands of 3D scanned objects stored in a repository identifying those that approximate the shape of the query model. Next, the matching models are retrieved, ranked by degree of similarity and displayed to the final user. Afterwards, additional tools can be deployed to perform some kind of analysis on the objects retrieved. 
A platform like this is much more powerful than a text search engine because it avoids mismatching situations, such as when a person queries the database looking up for “bowls” and retrieves nothing just because the bowls are labelled as “cuencos” (a Spanish term) or “cajetes” (i.e. a term common in Mesoamerican archaeology to described the same type of vessels). Moreover, the platform is able to exploit mathematical analysis algorithms for automatic classification of shapes.
During the presentation, we discuss the specific requirements that a shape recognition platform must satisfy to be useful in museums and cultural heritage research. In archaeological projects, for example, we encounter objects that are not necessarily identical in terms of geometry and yet they are considered to belong to the same class. We also intent to show the first part of this platform, namely the search engine for matching and retrieval of 3D Objects.


Thursday March 31, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

08:55

S12-14 Digital Archaeological Dissemination: Eleniana Domus in Rome
Digital Archaeological Dissemination: Eleniana Domus in Rome

Tommaso Empler

Abstract
The research project has the aim of a virtual reconstruction and dissemination of Eleniana Domus in Rome through the use of Digital Technologies.
The historical site, associated to the excellent state of preservation and the musealization process, makes the Eleniana Domus a great subject for developing innovative research and applications of virtual reconstruction and interactive dissemination directly on the site.
3D modeling is done with Blender, an Open Source 3D modeling software, which has in its structure of programming a "game engine", that can simultaneously handle multiple events, which allow a display/navigation in "real time" of the Domus.
Interaction enables new ways to visit and learn, through the use of instruments that can detect the actions and movements of the visitor/scholar himself, turning them into human/machine instructions. The procedure, developed in a digital way, allows multiple exploratory permutations/variations of informations on a single object, for a better understanding of the phenomena and/or nature of the object itself.
The procedure at the base of this pipeline includes a series of transactions that are connected one to the other:
1) detection of the object or area of interest using a 3D laser scanning survey. In this way it is possible to obtain a 3D model with the double function of representing the object itself and, at the same time, allow the use of Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z), of each point of the model, to plan the mode of interaction of the scholar on the site;
2) development of an interactive design application and set up an effective interface of interaction man/machine;
3) creation of human/machine interaction by the use of tools created for video game, as a Kinect or a leap motion;
4) preparation of a stage where occurs the release of the interacive information, defining the interactive area (box, corner, wall) and placing in tools of input/output (projector, kinect, Leap 3D motion).

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers
avatar for Tommaso Empler

Tommaso Empler

Scientific Manager of Laboratory of Visual and Digital Studies in Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome - Department of History, Representation and Restoration in Architecture
BA Certificate of Higher Education in Architecture in 1992 at Sapienza University of Rome. PhD degree in 1998. Researcher in 2010. | Since 1998, as external lecturer, teaches Computer Graphics at “Valle Giulia” Faculty of Architecture - Sapienza University of Rome. From 2002 to 2004, as external lecturer, teaches Simulation techniques of landscape, at “Valle Giulia” Faculty of Architecture - Sapienza University of... Read More →


Thursday March 31, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

08:55

S17-06 Testing the validity of network analysis results in research on local transport networks
Testing the validity of network analysis results in research on local transport networks

Mark Groenhuijzen, Philip Verhagen

Abstract
Computational archaeology provides valuable tools for the reconstruction and analysis of transport networks. One such approach is a combination of a network constructed using least-cost paths and network analysis (Verhagen et al., 2014; Groenhuijzen and Verhagen, 2015), which can potentially provide valuable information regarding settlement location choice, site hierarchy, the role of settlements in transport networks and so on. However, testing the validity of the network analysis results and the archaeological interpretation thereof has so far been largely neglected. One of the key questions is thus: how reliant are the results of network analysis and their interpretation on nuances and uncertainties in the methodology and the dataset? This paper aims to test the robustness of network analysis results by measuring and analysing the development of local network statistics in randomly emerging transport networks. It is applied on a case study involving the Dutch part of the Roman limes, an area which is particularly interesting for research on local transport networks in the light of social and economic relations between the local rural population and the Roman military population, and an area for which a large amount of archaeological and palaeogeographical data is available.

Groenhuijzen, M. R., and P. Verhagen. 2015. “Exploring the dynamics of transport in the Dutch limes.” eTopoi Journal for Ancient Studies Special Volume 4: 25-47.
Verhagen, P., T. Brughmans, L. Nuninger, and F. Bertoncello. 2014. “The Long and Winding Road: Combining Least Cost Paths and Network Analysis Techniques for Settlement Location Analysis and Predictive Modelling.” In CAA2012. Proceedings of the 40th Conference in Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012, edited by G. Earl, T. Sly, A. Chrysanthi, P. Murrieta-Flores, C. Papadopoulos, I. Romanowska, and D. Wheatley, 357–366. Amsterdam: Pallas Publications.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Thursday March 31, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

08:55

S20-02 Computer vision applied to historical air photos: The registration and object detection challenge
Computer Vision applied to Historical Air Photos: The Registration and Object Detection Challenge

Sebastian Zambanini, Fabian Hollaus, Robert Sablatnig

Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of automatically analyzing aerial photos taken during World War II air strikes. The goal of this work is to locate unexploded ordnances (UXOs) for risk assessments, enabled by the registration of the historical air photos to modern-day satellite images and the detection of military objects (e.g. bomb craters or trenches). The work is part of the DeVisOR project which aims at supporting the tedious task of creating UXO surveys in a semi-automatic manner by means of powerful image analysis methods and interactive visualization techniques.

In this paper we focus on the image analysis part and present the specific challenges that arise when working with this kind of data. For registration, the strong image changes caused by time spans of around 70 years hinder the reliable identification of correspondences between the old and new images, especially in non-urban areas. In combination with the generally low image quality of the old aerial photos and the appearance variations caused by illumination changes, a straightforward solution based on standard algorithms using keypoint matching and sample-based transformation estimation does not exist. The same problem appears for the detection task, which is additionally impeded by the absence of large amounts of training data. Consequently, innovative solutions are required that are tailored to the specific conditions of the problem.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers
FH

Fabian Hollaus

Vienna University of Technology | | Institute of Computer Aided Automation | | Computer Vision Lab
RS

Robert Sablatnig

Head of Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Computer Aided Automation
Robert Sablatnig was born in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, Austria, in 1965. He re­ceived the B.Sc. de­gree in Computer Science in 1988, the M.Sc. de­gree (Diplom Ingenieur) in Computer Science (Computer Graphics, Pat­tern Recognition & Image Processing) in 1992, the Ph.D. degree in Com­­puter Science in 1997 and the “venia docendi” (habilitation) in Applied Computer Science in 2003, all from the Vienna University... Read More →


Thursday March 31, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Bibliotheca

09:20

S02-03 Applied Agent-Based Modeling in archaeology: When and why?
Applied Agent-Based Modeling in Archaeology: When and Why?

Kathryn Harris, Iza Romanowska, Benjamin Davies, Stefani A. Crabtree

Abstract
Agent-based modeling is useful well beyond academia, but there is a lack of practical methodologies to guide the average archaeologist through the construction of an agent based model (ABM). Furthermore, the successful application of an ABM requires a thorough understanding of when it should be applied and why an ABM can be valuable to many different types of archaeologist. To this end, we developed a series of tutorials on agent-based modeling, walking the archaeologist through an agent-based model building process using a simple agent-based model and its application to an archaeological case study. This paper complements the tutorials by focusing on when and why an archaeologist should use an ABM. First, we discuss when to apply an abstract null model to an archaeological case study and discuss the potential difficulties and pitfalls of the method. Finally, we focus on exploring the epistemology of the agent based model and it’s potential within archaeology. Agent-based models can be helpful for disseminating information to government institutions and supporting a public archaeology. With the basic understanding developed through these tutorials and this paper, Agent-based modeling can aid in championing a better and deeper understanding of the past among the general public.


Thursday March 31, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

09:20

S06-03 AsTrend: A las point based methodology for micro surfaces depicting
ASTREND: A LAS POINT BASED METHODOLOGY FOR MICRO SURFACES DEPICTING

Miguel Carrero-Pazos, Benito Vilas-Estévez, Alia Vázquez-Martínez

Abstract
The following work presents the AsTrend, a new methodology for enhance and depict details of 3D models. It is based on the extraction of las points from a tridimensional model, which are processed with the most common lidar techniques (Hesse 2010; Štular 2012). We propose a methodological approach, in which we have chosen some rock art carvings from megalithic sites and bronze age petrogliphs og Galicia (Northwest of Iberian Peninsula) to see the limits and possibilities of the methodology.
This technique is being revealed as an accurate method to study rock art carvings. We expect to test this technique in other supports like bones, wood, pottery and so on. We also think that this method could be used by everyone as the main study objects are based in low cost photogrammetry on the acquisition of 3D models.

Moderators
Thursday March 31, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

09:20

S12-15 Integrated methodologies for knowledge and valorisation of the Roman Casinum city
Integrated methodologies for knowledge and valorisation of the Roman Casinum city

Michela Cigola, Arturo Gallozzi, Leonardo Paris, Emanuela Chiavoni

Abstract
Focus of this article is the documentation, interpretation, valorisation and communication of Archaelogical Heritage of roman Casinum city site. Nowadays this important archaeological area is little known and appreciated.
The city of Casinun is particularly flourishing in Republican and Imperial Roman period. From this period are the remains of the Roman via Appia, the Theatre (27 BC.-14 AC), the amphitheater (I century AC), the nymphaeum (I century BC-I century AC.) and the tomb of Ummidia Quadratilla (I century BC-I century AC)
Casinum Archaelogical Heritage includes tangible and intangible goods. Keeping this site from the present for the future is connected with actions such as Identification, Analysis, Preservation, and Restoration, with specific technical meaning. Each of this area of intervention includes not only technical actions and expertise but require also of more cultural evaluations as in respect of the concept of Archeological heritage. Summarizing in short, Casinum Archaelogical Area can be also understood as a complexity of activities in a very wide range of disciplines whose aim is to identify, evaluate, and preserve past achievements for the benefit of next generation in having memory of the past and inspiration from it for future enhancements and appreciation of current results.
Our research includes several integrated methodologies. The main part involves a laser scanner survey of the whole area. There are many others steps that include digital processing about documentation, interpretation and communication of Casinum Archaeological Area.
The research group is formed by DART: Laboratory of Documentation, Analysis, Survey of Architecture and Territory of University of Cassino and by LRA Laboratory of Architectural Survey, CRITEVAT Center in Riety, Sapienza University f Rome. The Cassino National Archaeological Museum "G. Carettoni" and the “Archaeological Park of Casinum” are involved and collaborate in the research.


Thursday March 31, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

09:20

S17-07 The need of topographic restitution in local mobility analysis
The need of topographic restitution in local mobility analysis.

Diego Torres-Iglesias

Abstract
When we conduct a landscape archaeology study in a GIS environment (especially the analysis of mobility) we should be aware that any territory undergoes a transformation, especially in the last 50 years. 
The Digital Terrain Models on which the study is based depart from the current topography (whether models from contours or the latest from LiDAR point clouds), so the lack of a correction and topographic restitution it can lead to certain errors, as can be the layout of an optimal path on a current road, an industrial area blocking sightlines or the the impossibility of study a valley submerged in a dam. The probability of obtaining these errors increase in inverse proportion to the cell size of the digital model, and we need high resolution models if we want a higher accuracy in the calculations and results over the previous relief; the examples in this paragraph are evident when we work with a 5x5 m. DEM. 
For all these reasons, it is essential to make a correction that brings us as closer as possible to a hypothetical paleotopography that allows us, among other things, know the evolution of a particular territory or calculate least cost paths avoiding “current interferences” such as the aforementioned actual roads, towns or, if we have the help of historical planimetry and orthophotos, opencast mines, dams and other significant alterations in the landscape. 

Keywords: GIS, Local Mobility, Topographic Restitution, Landscape.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

09:20

S20-03 Semi-automatic detection of charcoal kilns from airborne laser scanning data
Semi-automatic detection of charcoal kilns from airborne laser scanning data

Øivind Due Trier, Lars Holger Pilø

Abstract
This paper presents new methods for the semi-automatic detection of charcoal kilns from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data.

The 17th century saw the establishment of a number of iron works in Norway, based on the need of the Danish king for iron for ships, armaments and other military purposes. The iron works at Lesja, Oppland County, was established 1660. Surveys in connection with cultural heritage management work have pointed to the presence of large numbers of charcoal kilns in the area surrounding the Lesja Iron Works. It was not known, however, what the total number of preserved kilns was, if they showed sign of reuse, and how they were distributed throughout the landscape. 

In 2013 the entire forested valley in Lesja was mapped by ALS with five first returns per m2. The initial visual interpretation of the ALS data, focusing on the central area, yielded about one thousand possible charcoal kilns. All were round, with a diameter between 10 and 20 m. However, the edge of the kilns had a varied topographical expression. Some kilns had a ditch surrounding them, some had pits, and some had a combination of the two. In addition some kilns had a low mound inside the ditch/pits or even pits inside the circumference.

In order to conduct a complete mapping, covering the different shapes of charcoal kiln, several detection methods are used: (1) mound detection, (2) pit detection, (3) circular ditch detection, and (4) partial ditch detection. Although many individual charcoal kilns are missed by the automatic detection methods, many are also detected, leading the archaeologist to look for additional charcoal kilns nearby. In conclusion, the automatic detection methods are improving the quality of visual interpretation of the ALS data, and make the field work more efficient.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Bibliotheca

09:45

S06-04 Application of Computer Vision algorithms for automatic classification of archaeological artefacts
Application of Computer Vision algorithms for automatic classification of archaeological artefacts

Edgar Francisco Román-Rangel, Diego Jiménez-Badillo

Abstract
The application of computer vision technologies for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts has witnessed a rapid growth during the last decade. This is especially true with regard to the creation and use of digital 3D models, which enable capabilities that would not be available using the original artefacts, such as automatic and semi-automatic content analysis, virtual reconstructions, more efficient archiving, sharing documentation online, training of novel scholars, etc.
An area of especial interest is the statistical analysis of shape features observed on 3D models of artefacts, especially ceramic vessels and pottery sherds, with the purpose of categorizing and classifying objects in an automatic way.
In this paper we present new results of an on-going project focused on applying computer vision techniques for automatic classification of archaeological artefacts. We discuss some useful approaches that involve the extraction of shape descriptors (SIFT, Spin Images, etc.) within a Bag of Visual Words model and propose a novel technique for local description of 3D surfaces called Histogram of Spherical Orientations (HoSO).
The HoSO local descriptor consists of the quantization of the local orientations of a point with respect to its nearest neighbours. Such local orientations are computed both in the azimuth and the zenith axes. The frequencies of the local orientations are stored in a histogram, which can then be used for comparison and matching purposes


Thursday March 31, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

09:45

S12-16 An exploratory use of 3D for investigating a Prehistoric stratigraphic sequence
An exploratory use of 3D for investigating a Prehistoric stratigraphic sequence

Giacomo Landeschi, Jan Apel, Stefan Lindgren, Nicolò Dell'Unto

Abstract
Re-interpreting documentation that has been produced in the course of an archaeological excavation is always a challenging and tricky task. Several problems occur when archaeologists are dealing with datasets created by different authors at a different time in the past. As Shanks and Tilley recall (1992) the fullest understanding of an archaeological dataset is totally related to the context being investigated. 
The purpose of a research recently started at Lund University was to test the use of 3D technology as an exploratory tool for data analysis. The combination of advanced 3D acquiring techniques and the setup of GIS systems capable to deal with geometrically-complex 3D information has been tested to investigate one of the most outstanding archaeological sites in Scandinavia, the cave of Stora Förvar in Stora Karlsö, Gotland (Sweden). The main part of the cave sequence was excavated between 1888 and 1894 but in the summer of 2013 the project conducted a small excavation of the cave floor and undisturbed cultural layers with flint tools, fish and marine mammal bones were recovered. We also recovered human remains in the form of a tooth, skull fragments and a foot bone.
Unfortunately the original field report of the 19th-century excavation was written 50 years after the excavation by archaeologists not involved in the field work. However, unpublished photos and field documentation material is available at Antikvarisk Topografiska Arkivet in Stockholm. During the excavation in 2013 we collaborated with the Lund University Humanities Laboratory and 3D-scanned the complete cave with a high resolution scanner. 
The idea that has been developed was to integrate the 3D models of the cave in the GIS platform and to combine it with hand-made drawings made by archaeologists in the early 20th century. As a result, digital layers (that were excavated with the arbitrary layer method) were reconstructed in the form of three-dimensional vector features and the original stratigraphic sequence integrated in GIS based on the geometrical reference provided by the cave 3D model. As a future development, part of the artefacts documented during the early 20th Century excavation will be connected to their original stratigraphy. Hopefully, it will be possible to recreate a three-dimensional archaeological sequence in which the original spatial relations among the artifacts will be highlighted and possible patterns related to the Mesolithic occupation of the site put in light through the use of advanced analytic tools available in GIS environment.


Thursday March 31, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

09:45

S17-08 From sea to land: Reflections on freight traffic during the Iron Age of the Northeastern Iberian peninsula (6th to 1st centuries BC)
From sea to land: Reflections on freight traffic during the Iron Age of the north-eastern Iberian peninsula (6th to 1st centuries BC).

Joan Canela Gràcia, Núria Otero Herraiz

Abstract
It is known that maritime and fluvial shipping were the most efficient means of transport for distributing freights during the Antiquity. However; the distribution of goods to certain inner cities or significant Iberian settlements raises many questions. In this regard the use of carts and pack animals was common, but the roads the Iberian people travelled are mostly unkwnown.
The objective of this paper is studying overland travels during the Second Iron Age in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. In this regard, the application of the least cost paths calculation methods should provide the opportunity to define the basis of a hypothetical Iberian road network during this period in the area. The results will be compared with the historic roads, in order to detect the presence or the lack of coincidences among them. This subject will be approached through two study cases, concerning two different political, ethnic and geographic territories. In one hand we have the Iberian Cessetània, located in the coastal area, which grosso modo coincides with the province of Tarragona. On the other we have the western Ilergetia, a territory wich is nowadays split among the provinces of Lleida and Huesca. This area has been from ancient times a well known communication hub towards the inner lands of the Iberian Peninsula and the Atlantic coast, due to the significance of its fluvial networks. 
In conclusion with this work we pretend use the GIS least cost paths calculations in order to approach the Iberian terrestrial transport networks and their persistence over time and landscape.

Moderators
avatar for Mark GROENHUIJZEN

Mark GROENHUIJZEN

PhD Candidate, VU University Amsterdam

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

09:45

S20-04 Two methods for semi-automated feature extraction from lidar─derived DEM designed for cairn─fields and burial mounds
Two methods for semi-automated feature extraction from lidar-derived DEM designed for cairn-fields and burial mounds

Benjamin Stular

Abstract
We are in agreement with the session call that among others a reason hindering more efficient emergence of semi-automated or supervised detection techniques to identify anthropogenic features on remote-sensing data are critics stressing the irreplaceability of human judgement in recognising archaeological features. In the case of the lidar-derived data, it seems, the prevailing reason is the fact that archaeological features come in a near-unlimited assortment of shapes and sizes, though. Thus, the successful efforts so far have been focused on a limited number of homogenous feature types that appear in great quantity, ie. roads, open mining shafts or cairn-fields.
We are presenting two methods developed for semi-automated detection of individual cairns within a cairn-field. The first method is based on the standard-deviation-of-elevation based local relief and subsequent classification of 2D shapes. The second method is based on peak finding algorithm. Both methods are implemented in existing free GIS software packages.
The pipeline for the two methods will be presented. The results will be showcased and discussed on two different case studies aiming at providing not just an "ideal" conditions but also a very demanding one.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Bibliotheca

10:10

Coffee break
Coffee points in the Domus Academica, Professorboligen and the Frokostkjelleren

Thursday March 31, 2016 10:10 - 10:30
Coffee point

10:30

S02-05 From the empirical to the conjectural: Settlement patterns on the Mesa Verde landform
From the Empirical to the Conjectural: Settlement Patterns on the Mesa Verde Landform

Kelsey M Reese

Abstract
A consistent issue that arises in archaeological studies is the absence of a complete set of data on which to perform analyses. Data may be unavailable for a variety of reasons, but its absence often inhibits complete understanding of a population in a defined area. In southwestern Colorado, survey coverage on the Mesa Verde landform is limited to the extent of Mesa Verde National Park, and therefore settlement studies are limited to less than one third of the prominent landform. To fully understand the size and expanse of habitations that were present in this area, this case study extrapolates settlement information from the recorded area to help understand the settlements that could possibly lie in what is unrecorded. Utilizing geospatial analyses, multiple dimensions of settlement choices, and overarching settlement patterns, this paper will present potential demographic and settlement characteristics from A.D. 600-1280; and further include placement of habitation sites and various types of public architecture that may exist beyond the boundaries of Mesa Verde National Park.

Moderators
Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:30

S06-05 A comparison of methods for creating 3D models of obsidian artifacts
A Comparison of Methods for Creating 3D Models of Obsidian Artifacts

Samantha Thi Porter, Kele Missal

Abstract
Within the discipline of lithic analysis, digital 3D artifact models are useful both as a means of augmenting traditional two-dimensional representations, and as a form of raw data for morphometric and technological analysis. Unfortunately, some raw materials are inherently more difficult to capture than others. Obsidian, specifically, is highly reflective, tends to have a visually homogenous surface, and is oftentimes transparent. All of these factors restrict a researcher’s ability to capture images of obsidian objects that are of high enough quality for the construction of an accurate 3D model. In some parts of the world the vast majority of lithic artifacts are made of obsidian. Therefore, finding a way to systematically model obsidian artifacts with a high degree of precision would be extremely useful.

We compare the effectiveness of two different methods of capturing object morphology, (structured-light scanning using a DAVID SLS-2 system and close-range photogrammetry using the software Agisoft PhotoScan) in conjunction with several commonly used substances used to coat lithic artifacts for scanning, (brushed-on talc powder, talc-based developer spray, and chalk spray) on a sample of experimentally produced obsidian pieces of different shapes and sizes. Coatings are evaluated on their ease of use, the quality of scans that result from their use, and their impact on artifacts (e.g. difficulty of removal, and effects on artifact labels). The quality of the 3D models are evaluated on the accuracy of gross artifact morphology as well as success in capturing fine features commonly used in lithic analysis such as retouch, platform preparation removals, ripples, and lancets. We also discuss alternative methods of documenting obsidian artifacts that do not necessitate coating, such as Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI).


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

10:30

S08-01 Putting production landscapes into context: A multi-faceted case study from Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age
Putting Production Landscapes into Context: A Multi-Faceted Case Study from Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age

Tuna Kalayci

Abstract
Second half of the Third Millennium BCE (mid-to-late Early Bronze Age) in Upper Mesopotamia was signified by a rapid urbanization period and intensification of agricultural production. Settlement nucleation in tell-based settlements evidently created a new form habitation. Furthermore, developments in the politico-economics (e.g. secondary state formation, textile production as a high-commodity) must have had considerable impacts on agricultural landscapes. In combination of these two events, it is possible that the main determinants of the change in food production were due to the increased demographic pressure and the systematic integration of animal husbandry -as the source of wool.

In order to test this hypothesis, the study provides a quantitative model of the EBA agricultural production for highlighting the relationship between minimum biological requirements and estimates of food levels. Following this model, the discussion focuses on the anomalous variations in production levels under the axiom that high population levels required higher amount of foodstuffs, and thus, must have necessitated more input for the sustainment. Next, it evaluates these variations for different planting strategies (e.g. fallowing) so that a more realistic picture can be drawn. Finally, the model results are re-assessed for its ethnographic corollaries for the issues of agricultural surplus, storage and social stratification.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Professorboligen, stallen

10:30

S12-17 The building survey of Kaasan Church
The Building Survey of Kaasan Church

James Miles, Hembo Pagi, Andres Uueni, Jüri Pärtna

Abstract
Kaasan Church, in Tallinn, Estonia was built during the time of Peter the Great (1721) and is the oldest wooden sacral building in Tallinn. A building survey was conducted in January 2015 where a laser scan and photogrammetric survey was completed. One of the aims of the recording was to document the current situation of the building including the structure’s interiors and exterior. The end product being a spatially georeferenced point cloud which was used for plans and drawings, as well as 3D modelling and other interactive outputs.
The paper will discuss the advantages that laser scanning and photogrammetry offer when compared to traditional survey techniques. With both types of recording taking place, the combination of the data has allowed for a precise and accurate representation of the church that goes beyond any form of recording that has previously taken place. The paper will therefore discuss the digital applications that these different methods provide when combined and it will show their usefulness in recording historical structures for Building Information Model (BIM) extraction.
Using digital frameworks has provided sufficient and adequate information for further reconstruction and conservation planning and has been used in addition to the previous work carried out on site, such as dendrochronological recording. As our models were combined, the results gathered were used as a basis for a BIM, CAD model, drawings, cross-sections and a video animation as well as panoramic photography to enable 360 degree views. Rather than limit ourselves to one technique, the combination of various methods has allowed all aspects of the church to be recorded and the data gathered will be used for future renovations. Each of the stages used will be discussed as will the difficulties associated with merging these data types. Particular attention will be given within the discussion of the production of the BIM model. This will develop into a further explanation of how BIM can be used within cultural heritage and it will point out the advantages that can be gained for future archaeological research. 
The paper will not only highlight the end results produced but it will also discuss the workflow methodology used in combining the different data types to extract the BIM.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

10:30

S20-05 Using eCognition to improve feature recognition
Using eCognition to improve feature recognition

Iris Caroline Kramer

Abstract
While automated feature recognition is still in its infancy in archaeology, within the geosciences recent developments have allowed its application to much more irregular typology, such as the supervised classification of landslides. This success is largely due to the geographical object-based image analysis software TRIMBLE eCognition. In archaeology, this programme has been applied to some extent, yet new additions to the array of available methods require a re-evaluation of its potential for feature recognition. For instance, the ability to integrate LiDAR data and aerial photography has long been desired within archaeology. Additionally, the ability to transfer rulesets for the detection of common features can facilitate data and knowledge-sharing amongst researchers. The case study will present three different automated detection methods; using the well-known eCognition ruleset generation based on cognitive reasoning; self-learning algorithms; and adaptive template matching. These techniques are applied to round barrow detection in the Avebury region in southern England, specifically distinguishing between the known variations of barrow, bank and ditch. Each method is assessed according to its usability for large regions and its potential for detecting variable features and complex shapes. The algorithms are intended to prioritise cognitive aspects of human vision such as elevation, size, shape and texture, using the LiDAR data and aerial photography. It is also stressed that ruleset exchange for generally known features and processes is highly important for mapping large areas across borders and is intrinsically supported by eCognition.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Bibliotheca

10:30

S25-01 Co-designing digital community archaeologies: Experiences from the re-reading the British Memorial Project
Co-Designing Digital Community Archaeologies: Experiences from the Re-Reading the British Memorial Project

Gareth Beale, Nicole Beale

Abstract
The Re-Reading the British Memorial Project began as a small scale documentation project which aimed to share digital imaging expertise with community groups studying burial spaces. In response to the requirements of community groups and with their collaboration the project has now expanded to support community led research at every stage of the data lifecycle from creation to re-use. The project has also grown to incorporate an increasingly broad range of stakeholders including national organisations and university research clusters as well as community groups and volunteers. 

This presentation will discuss some of the practical issues which arise out of the collaborative development of methodologies for digital archaeology and will explore the challenges and opportunities involved in moving from being a local project based on personal relationships to a national project working remotely with multiple partners. We will critically assess different methodological directions which have been trialled by the project and will describe our current strategies for community engagement and collaboration.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

10:55

S02-06 Studying site construction processes through visibility analyses: The case of Aguas Buenas, Nicaragua, a pre-Hispanic (400-1525 AD) mound complex
Studying Site Construction Processes Through Visibility Analyses: The case of Aguas Buenas, Nicaragua, a pre-Hispanic (400-1525 A.D.) mound complex

Dita Auziņa

Abstract
Aguas Buenas is a mound and petroglyph site in Central Nicaragua, Chontales, which consists of 379 mounds with a diameter variation from 2 to 20 meters and a height that spans from 10 centimetres to 6 meters. These structures are organised in geometrical, circular configurations, and distributed over a 25 hectare area with complicated topography and vegetation. However, after several on and off mound excavations conducted in the past few years by the Proyecto Arqueológico Centro de Nicaragua (PACEN), the construction, use, and meaning of the site are still under debate.

This paper will focus on the application of visibility analyses and their potential contribution to answering construction related research questions. Apart from that, it will discuss the relationships and supplementing possibilities between GIS based visibility analyses and the phenomenological approach.

Therefore, this paper will present all different phases involved in visibility analyses:

- the development of a Digital Evaluation Model (DEM) from scratch - the challenge of mapping the site;

- the implementation of GIS based visibility and inter visibility analyses through Viewshed analysis or a Line of Sight (LOS) on the basis of a DEM using ArcGIS 10 and Viewshed, Skyline, or LOS tools within the 3D analyst extension. To evaluate viewpoints, observers will be assigned a height of 1.57 m, which reflects the average stature of Nicaraguan indigenous people. Based on visibility areas as well as points breaking the visibility lines, a preliminary model of the complex’s construction phases will be presented.

- As a final step in visibility analyses, modelling results will be tested through a phenomenological approach.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:55

S06-06 Les gestes retrouves: A 3D visualisation approach to the functional study of Early Upper Palaeolithic grinding stones
Les gestes retrouves: a 3D visualisation approach to the functional study of Early Upper Palaeolithic grinding stones

Sorin Hermon, Laura Longo, Dante Abate, Giusi Sorrentino, Natalia Skakun

Abstract
Les gestes retrouves: a 3D visualisation approach to the functional study of Early Upper Palaeolithic grinding stones

The paper will present an innovative approach to the identification and characterization of use-wear traces on Aurignacian grinding stones used to processed plant in order to get staple food. Such a study is essential in reconstructing ancient dietary habits of humans at a crucial stage of human colonization in Eurasia. The current study focuses on the potential contribution of 3D investigation, at various levels of detail and resolution, to the identification of such traces and residues. The working methodology is still under revision, but it includes the following steps, firstly applied on a grinding stone from the Upper Palaeolithic site of Surein, Crimean Peninsula:

1. An overall documentation of the grinding stone: 3D geometry and rectified macro-photography. 
2. Rugosity analysis of the stone’s surface, in order to identify anomalies relatable to human intentional intervention (grinding). This analysis is performed using two approaches: cloud compare and Meshlab filter functions of colorizing curvatures (several tests are currently performed, using different curvature types). 
3. 3D documentation of molds taken in selected areas on the active surface of the grinding stone. These were 3D scanned using a shuttered light scanner and photogrammetry. Values had to be inversed along the Z axis, in order to correctly represent the surface micro-topography. 
4. Rectified digital images taken with a digital microscope at various magnifications, at logarithmic steps from x25 to x2500. These were assembled together in a CAD system, each magnification being considered one layer, in order to create a mosaicking of the surface. 
5. Measurements of the area of trace marks and characterization of their shape. Clustering of these marks along the working surface of the stone and associated starches. 

Overall, more than 40 trace marks were observed and characterized. The rugosity analysis of the working surface of the grinding stone correctly identified areas that have been modified by intentional human intervention. The presence of wear-traces and adhering starches, identified under microscope, along with morphological characteristic of use marks, are among the earliest evidences for plant processing at the dawn of modern humans in Eurasia. Currently, other 10 stones related to plant grinding (both grinding stones and pestles) are under analysis, with very promising preliminary results. The integration of 3D documentation, macro-photography and digital microscopy provided an ideal set of 3D and 2D data that has been successfully used for the functional analysis of Aurigancian grinding stones.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

10:55

S08-02 Quantifying change: An evolutionary approach to interpret the amphorae production in the Roman Empire
Quantifying change: an evolutionary approach to interpret the amphorae production in the Roman Empire

Maria Coto-Sarmiento, Xavier Rubio-Campillo, José Remesal

Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the dynamics of change in amphoric production within the Roman Empire. In particular, an evolutionary framework is applied to understand the mechanisms of changes in olive oil amphorae [1].

This analysis can be developed by the fact that we detect differences in the amphorae production through time that allow us to quantify the rates of change. One of the main challenges of this approach is the high level of uncertainty associated to the archaeological chronologies. In addition, this problem is combined with the lack of a formal framework to apply on the conventional techniques for the analysis of the amphorae dataset. 

In order to achieve this goal the study uses a quantitative framework based on cultural evolution theory. It provides a set of methods that can be used to account these changes in the production of olive oil amphorae. In this context, it will be presented a research where this methodology has been used to show its capacity to detect the culture trajectories. In particular, our case study has been focused to understand the dynamics of change of olive oil amphora production found in Baetica (currently Andalusia) during the Roman Empire (1st-3rd century AD). Specifically phylogenetic approach has been applied to quantify the morphological distance between pottery assemblages in order to identify discontinuities in archaeological and historical sequences. The phylogenetic tree created with this method will then be used to explore rates of change detected in the amphorae. In particular, we want to identify if these changes were produced by cultural reasons as it may be economical, political and social changes. 

The analysis explores how the framework provided by evolutionary archaeology can provide a useful base for understanding change in production processes using material culture. Finally, the results suggest that different factors can influence rate of change and thus different speeds can be identified with distinguishable patterns of social behaviour.

Keywords
Cultural evolution, Roman Empire, amphorae

References
[1] Mesoudi, A. (2015) Cultural Evolution: A review of Theory, Finding and Controversies, Evolutionary biology

Abstract presented in session type: paper


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Professorboligen, stallen

10:55

S12-18 A virtual reconstruction of the sun temple of Niuserra: From scans to BIM
A virtual reconstruction of the sun temple of Niuserra: from scans to BIM

Angela Bosco, Andrea D'Andrea, Massimiliano Nuzzolo, Rosanna Pirelli, Patrizia Zanfagna

Abstract
In 2010 an Italian team started new investigations in the Sun Temple of Niuserra at Abu Ghurab, south of Cairo, Egypt. The archaeological survey of the site was planned in order to re-examine the temple more than one hundred years on from the discovery by German archaeologist L. Borchardt in 1898. The investigations is mainly aimed at a general re-evaluation of the archaeological data still available on the site in order to establish a new plan of the temple by means of laser scanner and photogrammetry. The sun temple of Niuserra, sixth ruler of the fifth dynasty (about 2400 BC), covers an area of about 8800 sq m. More than 130 scans of the temple have been acquired so far. Some parts of the area have also been rendered by un-calibrate photogrammetry. At the beginning of the project a Zoller and Froilich Imager 5003 was used, while in 2014 the scans were acquired by Faro Focus 3D X130. In the last campaign also an image-based technique was tested. All data have been aligned and merged. The model has been referenced, firstly according to a local grid and then geo-referenced. In order to check the hypothesis made by Borchardt, the digital replica of the still visible rests of the monument have been processed by BIM (Build Information Modelling), an approach currently underdeveloped in archaeology. Thanks to this new methodology, it is possible to produce categories of environmental and technological objects and sub-systems, which represent the 3D semantic of the acquired model. The paper deals with all the recent achievements and technological issue, especially as concerns the analysis of the orientation, sun positioning and wind. Furthermore, the paper focuses on the analysis of the bearing structure and its components.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

10:55

S20-06 Automated detection of stone-walled ruins using based on support vector machine and histogram of oriented gradients
AUTOMATED DETECTION OF STONE-WALLED RUINS USING BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND HISTOGRAM OF ORIENTED GRADIENTS

Amandine ROBIN, Karim SADR

Abstract
Aerial or satellite imagery allow archaeological surveys of large areas for a fraction of the time and cost of ground surveys. Nevertheless, the task of examining reams of air photographs or zooming into details on Google Earth is also a time consuming exercise. Therefore a desirable objective is to find a way of automating the detection of archaeological sites on remotely sensed imagery. 

This new method proposes an autonomous approach to detect ruins, based on Histograms of Oriented Gradients for feature extraction and on a Support Vector Machine in order to classify the extracted features into a ruin vs non-ruin class. The support vector machine uses a training set to learn to distinguish the ruins from the rest, and is then applied to a wide area without any a priori knowledge to detect the ruins. 
The approach is validated over the Suikerbostrand area in South Africa, to identify and classify pre-colonial stone-walled structures in an 8000 km2 study area. Over 7000 structures have been identified by a team of research assistants and are used as ground truth. The main challenges specific to this context are that the structures we seek to detect are very subtle and made from locally available material, shapes are diverse and tend to be occluded by other features such as vegetation. Thus, ruins are difficult to differentiate from natural features. 

The performances of the method are analyzed depending on the set used for training, and the use of satellite images (LANDSAT, from Google Earth) vs LIDAR images is discussed. In both cases, the results demonstrate the relevance of this approach with a very good level of accuracy (more than 85%) and a good control of the false detections.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Bibliotheca

10:55

S25-02 Using Google Earth applications to enhance public engagement with cultural heritage: An evaluation of Seeing Beneath Stonehenge
Using Google Earth applications to enhance public engagement with cultural heritage: an evaluation of Seeing Beneath Stonehenge.

Kate Welham, Lawrence Shaw, Mark Dover, Harry Manley, Mike Parker Pearson

Abstract
This paper discusses the nature of public engagement with Google Earth based heritage applications, and considers whether the full potential of this media has yet been realised. It focuses on an evaluation of Seeing Beneath Stonehenge (https://microsites.bournemouth.ac.uk/seeing-beneath-stonehenge/), a free to use, Google Earth based application that was created from the wide variety of spatial data collated as part of the Stonehenge Riverside Project. The work was funded by Google, and aimed at creating a public platform where users could travel around the Stonehenge landscape examining a broad range of research results in-situ. Trench locations, findings and excavation images were included, along with broader landscape studies such as geophysical surveys and narrated tours of key monuments. 

We discuss the release, uptake and user feedback from Seeing Beneath Stonehenge. Web statistics are used to examine the use of social media in driving downloads, issues such as initial peak use and plateau, and the geographic distribution of users are considered. In particular we present the results of an online questionnaire that was aimed at examining how the application might have stimulated additional interest in the archaeology of Stonehenge and its wider landscape. Results were obtained from over 100 users, and the majority gave an overwhelming positive reaction to the application. Over 80% stated they were now more likely to visit the monument. We discuss the results, including ‘experience limiting’ factors such as technological familiarity. Finally we consider why Google Earth applications are yet to be fully utilised within archaeology, and their potential to appeal to a public with an insatiable demand for engaging and informative content.


Thursday March 31, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

11:20

S02-07 Assessing visibility and geomorphological biases in archaeological field surveys: a case study on an early Roman colonial landscape in Central-Southern Italy
Assessing visibility and geomorphological biases in archaeological field surveys: a case study on an early Roman colonial landscape in Central-Southern Italy

Anita Casarotto, Tesse D. Stek, Ruud van Otterloo, Jan Sevink

Abstract
There is general agreement amongst landscape archaeologists that survey data can be biased by many factors such as ground visibility conditions and geomorphological processes (erosion and deposition). The visibility conditions of investigated fields may play an important role in favoring or preventing the recognition of archaeological materials during field survey. Moreover, erosive and sedimentary processes that occurred after the primary deposition of these materials, can delete or obscure part of the archaeological record. In due course, these factors are likely to distort the original settlement history in a landscape. Therefore, it is of vital importance that archaeologists check their legacy data obtained by surveys for potential biases, before they use these data to assess ancient settlement patterns and location preferences. This paper presents a GIS quantitative approach for the evaluation of visibility and geomorphological effects in large scale, site-oriented field surveys conducted in the early Roman colonial territory of Aesernia (Central-Southern Italy). By means of a combined application of statistical tests and geo-pedological analysis the extent and scale of these biases are translated into GIS maps indicating the likelihood that negative field survey observations (absence of sites), in specific parts of the landscape, are genuine or rather the result of the aforementioned biases. These ‘archaeological detectability’ maps allow researchers to formally highlight critical surveyed zones where the recording of evidence may be unreliable, and thus provide a filter through which archaeologists can calibrate their interpretations of legacy site distributions.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

11:20

11:20

S08-03 Boundaries of agrarian production in the Bergisches Land in 1715 AD
Boundaries of agrarian production in the Bergisches Land in 1715 AD

Irmela Herzog

Abstract
The boundaries of agrarian production for the Bergisches Land east of Cologne in 1715 AD can be deduced from historical sources including maps created in the years up to 1715 AD and modern topographic data. The historical maps indicate the settlement sizes ranging from mills and single farmsteads to towns with walls. The maps are complemented by images of the two towns in the study area and a text describing the economy of each administrative unit covered. According to this additional information, in 1715 AD the towns were quite small and the economy relied mostly on agriculture (oat, pigs, and cattle). This applies even to the town controlling a bridge of an important trade route. Moreover, the maps show a large proportion of today's settlements, hardly any additional settlement locations can be found in the maps created in 1848. For this reason it seems plausible to assume that the study area was nearly full in 1715 AD. Different approaches to allocate territories to the settlement locations shown on the 1715 AD maps are discussed, based both on straight-line and least-cost distances. For allocation methods ignoring the settlement size the quality of the result is assessed by checking the relationship between territory size and settlement size. The paper also presents approaches for predicting the location of patches where additional settlements were founded after 1715 AD.

Moderators
Speakers
IH

Irmela Herzog

LVR-Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland | | Personal Page: http://www.stratify.org


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Professorboligen, stallen

11:20

S12-19 Virtual Cilicia Project: Digital globes for communicating digital archaeological heritage
Virtual Cilicia Project: Digital Globes for Communicating Digital Archaeological Heritage

Susanne Rutishauser, Ralph Rosenbauer, Tim Arni, Fabienne Kilchör, Alexander Sollee

Abstract
Surrounded by the Taurus and Amanus mountain ranges, the fertile alluvial plain of Cilicia Pedias in modern Turkey is a true treasury of important monuments from numerous ages. Hittite and Assyrian rock reliefs serve as representations of power at this connection between Anatolia and the Levant. Since it relies on Google Earth, the Virtual Cilicia Project is able to show these monuments as well as the ruins of Bronze and Iron Age settlements like e.g. Karatepe with its world-famous carved orthostats in their natural environments.

To visualize the development of this region during different epochs and to provide a better understanding for laypersons, new approaches are necessary. Virtual globes give users the chance to interactively explore different sites and the interplay between environment and settlement patters. Since Google Earth uses KML 2.2, an open
standard XML notation, it is simple to add one‘s own content. In addition, KML became an increasingly common standard within geographic information systems and online tools, therefore becoming a well-documented future-proof solution. The integration of a timeline directly into Google Earth makes it a perfect instrument for the
visualization of historical developments.

The Virtual Cilicia Project’s goal is to document the vast diversity of Cilicia’s history and to present this cultural heritage in the context of its ancient and modern landscape to the expert and the layman.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

11:20

S20-07 Experiments in the automatic detection of archaeological features in remotely sensed data from Great Plains USA villages
Experiments in the Automatic Detection of Archaeological Features in Remotely Sensed Data from Great Plains USA Villages

Kenneth L Kvamme

Abstract
Numerous prehistoric villages associated with native farming tribes of the Great Plains, USA, have been investigated through ground-based geophysics and aerial remote sensing, including lidar. These villages vary from 1-20 ha and contain a number of common features including houses of various forms and sizes, ceremonial structures, plazas, and fortification ditches linked with bastions. Within houses, hearths and food storage pits represent features of great interest, important for dating and gaining samples of artifacts, faunal, and botanical remains. Large features are visible to varying degrees in lidar, normal light or thermal infrared aerial imagery, or in site-wide electrical resistivity data, while hearths and storage pits are detectable through magnetometry. This paper explores whether such features be extracted and automatically classified through computer operations alone.
The GIS toolbox offers unrealized potential for the identification of archaeological features in such data, simply because few investigators have attempted to do so. The focus here is on how relatively common GIS tools can be employed for the identification of specific archaeological feature types that exist in Great Plains villages using remotely sensed data. Pre-processing employs image manipulation tools (low and high-pass filters) to simplify noisy data and remove local geological or topographical trends, while Fourier methods isolate and remove periodicities (e.g., plow marks that obscure the archaeological signal). Reclassification tools permit definitions of anomalous objects or potential features. Shape indices give their approximate shapes, their sizes may be calculated, and proximities between them may be determined (though “distance” modules); the last permits realizations of context. Custom filters may be designed to recognize complex shapes through pattern matching approaches. Using these tools, pathways are developed for each of the previously cited feature types of archaeological interest. Collectively, they offer a diverse array of decision making mechanisms for the identification and classification of complex archaeological features.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Bibliotheca

11:20

S25-03 Rekrei: A public platform for digitally preserving lost heritage
Rekrei: A public platform for digitally preserving lost heritage

Matthew Luke Vincent, Chance Coughenour, Fabio Remondino, Mariano Flores Gutierrez, Victor Manuel Lopez-Menchero Bendicho, Dieter Fritsch

Abstract
Rekrei (rekrei.org), formerly Project Mosul, is one of those projects that grows out of a conversation between two friends. The co-founders, Matthew Vincent and Chance Coughenour, were discussing the destruction of heritage in the Middle East by extremist groups such as the self-proclaimed Islamic State when Coughenour suggested that they could begin to crowd-source images and photogrammetrically create digital reconstructions of the heritage that was being systematically destroyed. A week later, Rekrei was born. Neither ever imagined that it would get the public’s attention, but such a project provides a very real and tangible response to the senseless loss of humanity’s past. 6 months later, Project Mosul has continued to grow, shifting from a single focus in norther Iraq, to a global focus on lost heritage everywhere. The co-founders are exploring ways they can continue to build tools that help identify monuments in danger, areas that should be prioritised for scanning and preservation, and ways they can continue to connect the public with tangible means of preserving the heritage. This paper explores some of these new topics, dealing with authenticity of 3D reconstructions, while also at the same time looking at public, crowd-sourcing projects and the challenges that they present when you combine a group of non-experts and high-profile destructions. Future work is looking at how this platform can be applied towards risk assessment and management, as well as improving the available tools to empower the public to engage in such reconstruction efforts for the preservation and recovery of lost heritage.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

11:45

S02-08 Glacial Archaeology in the Austrian Alps (GAAA)
Glacial Archaeology in the Austrian Alps (GAAA)

Harald Stadler, Thomas Bachnetzer, Stephanie E. Metz

Abstract
Due to the current rate of glacial erosion in the alpine region, more archaeological and organic remains are revealed than ever before. These finds span the last 10,000 years of human history, creating new and exiting datasets for not only archaeology, but other related subjects as well. Of particular interest have been prehistoric finds, notably at Similaun (“Ötzi the ice man”) in 1991, and more recently at the Schnidejoch and Lötschenpass in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland. The high level of preservation from having been encased in ice for thousands of years means that these examples and others have helped to shed light on the poorly understood early use of high-alpine landscapes. Thus, the data are of important value for multiple disciplines, namely Forensic Anthropology, Zooarchaeology, Archaeobotany, Glaciology, and Climatology. While the research potential in this field is clear, to date there has been little work done either to understand or protect these critically endangered cultural heritage assets. Indeed, previous academic work has highlighted just how important the development of a methodology is to systematically study the glacial archaeological data in the Austrian alpine region before it disappears. Thus, the aim of the GAAA Project will be the systematic identification of areas of high archaeological potential in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg regions of Austria. To this end, the project will work on a three-tiered level of engagement with the data via development of methodological practice and theory, fieldwork and community outreach/public relations. The very short window of maximum ice melt from August to September necessitates the development of a framework to be able to detect and evaluate potential findspots in advance. With the help of GIS, predictive models will be generated to identify areas of potential interest. These parameters of these models will be based on both cultural and environmental geospatial factors. The framework for these models will ultimately enable a targeted survey of potential findspots which will then be monitored for the appearance of archaeological material.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Media, Aulaen

11:45

S06-08 The digital ossuary: Rothwell (Northamptonshire, UK)
The Digital Ossuary: Rothwell (Northamptonshire, UK)

Elizabeth Craig-Atkins, Jenny Crangle, Dawn Hadley, Peter Heywood, Tom Hodgson, Steve Maddock, Robin Scott, Adam Wiles

Abstract
Holy Trinity church, Rothwell (Northamptonshire) houses one of only two English medieval ossuaries with in situ charnel. Ossuaries were largely emptied and either demolished or allocated to other uses after the early sixteenth-century Reformation, and have accordingly attracted minimal scholarly attention, despite their important functions as places of pilgrimage and intercessionary prayer. At Rothwell, osteological analysis is hampered by issues of access, preservation and requirement of the church authorities to retain the remains in situ. Our research project has four principal aims: i) to illuminate medieval use of the ossuary, through digital capturing of its spatial arrangements, and the range of medieval vantage points into the chapel; ii) to present this fragile, and largely inaccessible, heritage resource to the public in a sustainable manner; iii) to analyze the largely unstudied medieval human skeletal remains (which cannot be removed for standard osteological assessment) by collecting digital records of the charnel deposit, with a view to understanding the composition and stratigraphy of the assemblage; and iv) to facilitate digital preservation of the charnel, which is in a fragile state, with a view to informing conservation strategies (e.g. through recording of degradation and discolouration). This paper addresses the methodological challenges of working in this semi-subterranean environment, with restrictions on the handling of the osteological materials, and issues attendant on capturing the larger built environment alongside the finer detail of the charnel. A Leica P20 laser scanner was used to capture a 3D point cloud which is being processed to produce a 3D model. Interrelated research is addressing: i) how to produce a sufficiently accurate surface model; ii) the most appropriate computer graphics rendering; and iii) the kinds of interaction required to maximise accessibility to both the public and researchers.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

11:45

S08-04 Factors of production: Investigating land and labour as limiting factors in agricultural production in the Dutch Roman limes zone via agent-based modelling
Factors of production: investigating land and labour as limiting factors in agricultural production in the Dutch Roman limes zone via agent-based modelling.

Jamie Joyce, Philip Verhagen

Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the role of land and labour availability in the rural economy of the Dutch Roman limes region via agent-based modelling. The availabilities of land and labour pose limits on agricultural production and are regarded in economics as two of the primary factors or inputs in the production process determining the quantity of output. Although recent research has now prompted a departure from the previously held view that surplus production in the region was not possible (see Kooistra et al. 2013; van Dinter et al. 2014), we still don’t know how the shift from subsistence farming to surplus production occurred. The likely methods of surplus production undertaken by local farmers, the limiting factors in agricultural production within different temporal and geographic scales and possible mitigation strategies have hitherto only been dealt with in generalist terms. 
To investigate these topics, we have produced an agent-based model in NetLogo to simulate the rural economy of the region with land and labour costs as primary outputs. We have simulated methods and strategies in the three most significant elements of this economy: animal husbandry, arable farming and wood-fuel acquisition. By comparing the model results against archaeological data of the natural and cultural landscapes in the region, we are able to test the scenarios for plausibility. In addition, the model has enabled us to investigate the elements of the rural economy not only as separate activities but in combination, reflecting the mixed agriculture practiced in the region in this period. Lastly, we are able to simulate a dynamic economy both temporally and geographically by imposing on agents conditions known from the region. We present here therefore the initial results from the model and our conclusions in defining the limits of production in the Dutch Roman limes zone.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Jamie JOYCE

Jamie JOYCE

PhD Candidate, VU University


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Professorboligen, stallen

11:45

S12-20 Representing Archaeological Architecture―RAA
Representing Archaeological Architecture – RAA

Carlo Inglese, Mario Docci, Alfonso Ippolito

Abstract
Representation analysis and interpretation of elements of archaeological heritage is a painstaking activity. It also includes a wide range of interdisciplinary subjects and competences. Innovative tools which are constantly being developed make it possible for the researcher to adopt an integrative approach favorable to all the figures involved in the whole process of documentation. Close collaboration of architects and archaeologists made it possible to understand the key elements of archaeological heritage based on considerations extracted from historical analysis and to have at disposal a large quantity of information gathered by taking advantage of the potentialities of technologically advances tools (3d laser scanner, systems of massive acquisition of photographic data, modeling systems of image based, etc). The significance of constructing digital models in the domain of archaeology is already a well-established idea and only reinforces the theoretical bases of survey and representation.
Unlike archaeologists - whose research is mainly aimed at reconstructing the historical process and collocating artifacts within a precise frame of reference - architects investigate the form, reconstruct the process of designing, and study formal, proportional laws and spacial aggregations of various elements. The interrelation between the two disciplines opens up the possibility to achieve complete results as far as documentation, analysis and interpretation of the so called archaeological architecture (AA) are concerned. On one hand, archaeologist can use explorable and measurable 2D and 3D high precision models, which realistically show surface qualities; on the other hand, architects can turn to advantage archaeologists' extensive knowledge to interpret correctly data in their historical and metric framework and to verify interpretative hypotheses. The proposed paper, starting with the integrated survey of archaeological structures of high historical and artistic importance, like Colosseum, Pantheon and Arch of Janus in Rome, analyzes the possibilities offered by the survey of archaeological architecture at different scales.

Moderators
AI

Alfonso Ippolito

Assistant Professor, SAPIENZA Università di Roma

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

11:45

S20-08 Down to the last pixel: Multiband use for direct detection of Caribbean indigenous archaeology
Down to the last Pixel - Multiband use for direct detection of Caribbean indigenous archaeology

Till Frieder Sonnemann, William Megarry, Eduardo Herrera Malatesta, Douglas Comer

Abstract
The use of satellite imagery has been so far very limited in detecting pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean. Most superficial evidence of building structures has long perished. What remains are slight topographic modifications, house platforms and small mounds predominantly made of midden and soil that also include ceramics and lithic assemblages. The altered topography together with the surface scatter may however serve as quantifiable indicators to represent an archaeological site.
With the precise location of known sample sites, and the information of areas with no archaeological evidence, the authors use a variety of available data sets, a combination of multispectral bands (Worldview-2, Aster, LandSAT) and SAR (UAVSAR L-band, TanDEM-X) to feed a direct detection algorithm developed at CSRM and Johns Hopkins University. The pre-processed very diverse data has to be exactly matching in resolution and location, feeding a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets that requires supercomputing. Resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of areas with similar pixel value combinations, with high probability of archaeological evidence.
Three trial areas with sufficient diverse image coverage were chosen on the island of Hispaniola, representing different types of environments and crossing country boundaries, situated in Dominican Republic and Haiti. All areas have a number of sites identified through non-systematic surveys. A fourth region where a systematic survey was performed over a smaller area is used as a reference to validate the method.

Moderators
AT

Arianna Traviglia

MC Research Fellow, University Ca'Foscari of Venice

Speakers

Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Bibliotheca

11:45

S25-04 Photomodeling and webmappingn on archeological site of Carthage (Tunisia) and data collection in the museum of Bardo (Tunisia)
Photomodeling and webmapping on archeological site of Carthage (Tunisia) and data collection in the museum of Bardo (Tunisia)

Meriem Zammel

Abstract
In the context of the project Hologramme: “Harmonize the opportunities related to new guidelines for the management of archaeological Mediterranean resources and development of a network of experiences” between Italy and Tunisia, a multidisciplinary team formed of archeologists, architects, computer scientists worked together in order to showcase Tunisian and Sicilian Heritage by using new technologies.
The aim of this paper is to present our contribution in this project by teaching digital archeology at Tourath association, by Photo modeling objects and statues in site of Carthage and Museum of Bardo, and preparing social media to public in order to help him to understand the particularity of cultural heritage in this area and history, through 3D modeling of monuments and videos. Those objects are witnesses of the past. 
The sponsor of this project for Tunisia is the cultural heritage agency (AMVPPC) which has chosen the society NGI (Maghreb) for the webmapping.
Thereby, interactive maps using web mapping, 3D models of monuments and image based modeling of objects obtained from Autodesk 123 catch were made in order to show the historical stratification of Tunisia.
Automatic image based modeling constitute an accurate and low cost technique. Multiple data sources (Photos, text, 3D model, Photo model…) are used and integrated in a web system in order to show to the visitor a way of understanding and documenting the past.


Thursday March 31, 2016 11:45 - 12:10
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

12:10

Lunch break
Thursday March 31, 2016 12:10 - 13:30
Frokostkjelleren University garden

13:30

S06-09 O brother, where art you? A quantitative approach using 3D models and geometric morphometrics: The case study of the Ayia Irini terracotta figurines
O Brother, Where Art You? A quantitative approach using 3D models and Geometric Morphometrics: the case study of the Ayia Irini terracotta figurines

Vera Moitinho de Almeida, Valentina Vassallo

Abstract
The Ayia Irini terracotta figurines are part of a collection found by a Swedish excavation in a rural open-air sanctuary in the north of Cyprus in 1929. It consists of a large number of statues different in size and in form representing human figures, animals, chariots, minotaurs. After the discovery, the archaeological mission received the permission to export more than half of the collection to Sweden, where is currently exhibited at the Medelhavsmuseet in Stockholm and a small set at the Historical Museum of Lund University. The rest of the collection is exhibited at the Cyprus museum in Nicosia.
Traditionally, archaeological descriptions have either been based on qualitative assessments of morphologies and non-diagnostic techniques, or on the use of linear basic measurements and ratios to characterize figurines typologically, stylistically and morphologically.
The current research aims at enhancing traditional studies and at exploring the range of variation that occurs in figurine form and size, and its potential contribution to their manufacturing taxonomy. Our approach includes the use of 3D scanning, three-dimensional models and Geometric Morphometrics (GM) techniques, to quantify and statistically analyse these archaeological objects.
3D scanning of archaeological materials has been widely used for artefact documentation. For this research, a set of human figures of small size were 3D scanned using a portable laser surface scanning system. Then, they were subjected to 3D GM techniques to quantify and analyse form variation and co-variation with other variables and factors. Thereafter, we proceeded with multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate the morphological similarity/dissimilarity between the sampled set.
We expect that the results of 3D GM and statistical analysis of these figurines may enhance discussions of technological studies and quantitatively improve our understanding of manufacturing techniques and procedures. This non-invasive approach has not been previously applied to terracotta figurines in Cyprus.

Keywords: 3D Scanning; Cyprus; Geometric Morphometrics; Quantitative Analysis; Terracotta Figurines.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

13:30

S15-01 Auralization: What can acoustics tell us about digital lived experience?
Auralization: What can acoustics tell us about digital lived experience?

Catriona Cooper

Abstract
The process of auralization has been a focus of acousticians for many years. As with early years of visualisation cultural heritage sites have often been used as case studies for exploring how acoustics can be modelled. The work has mostly been either recording sites as they stand today (Martellotta, 2009), or beginning to model them using software packages such as CATT and Odeon (Farnetani, Prodi, & Pompoli, 2008). In recent years archaeologists have begun to engage with sound in more detail, some of these approaches have been theoretical (Hamilakis, 2011; Weiss, 2008) or exploratory (Reznikoff, 2008; Waller, 1999), while others more technologically based (Mlekuz, 2004). 
Unlike digital visualisation modelling acoustics has not been heavily critiqued and there has not been the drive for archaeologists to learn to undertake the work independently. Instead archaeologists to team up with acousticians (Till, Scarre, & Miguel Fazenda, 2013; Till, 2011; Watson & Keating, 1999; McBride, 2013). However, this does not foster a true understanding of the results, acousticians do not theoretically engage with space, while archaeologists do not understand the nuances of the technique. 
In this paper I present a methodology for discussing the acoustical properties of a closed space. Focussing on or case study of Ightham Mote in Kent this paper discusses geometrical acoustic methods of auralizing the Great Hall. I will bring together the results of the survey to discuss the experience of sound in the place and how this can be used alongside our understanding of the experience of sound in a medieval household.

Moderators
Thursday March 31, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Bibliotheca

13:30

S25-05 Visualizing original sea level of Stone Age sites on location by means of mobile augmented reality
Visualizing original sea level of Stone Age sites on location by means of mobile augmented reality

Gunnar Liestøl, Birgitte Bjørkli, Espen Uleberg

Abstract
When understanding and informing about the localization of Stone Age sites along the rugged
coast of Norway it is always pertinent to include information about the sea level at the time the site
was in use. This is important for both archaeological surveying and excavation, as well as
mediation to the public at large. When one finds oneself on a Stone Age site a kilometer inland in
the thick of a dark forest it is not easy to imagine what the place actually looked like six thousand
years earlier when the site was in use by Neolitihic Man in Norway as part of the coastline and
exposed to the open sea. How may we take advantage of the current state of the art in location–
based media and mobile augmented reality in order to bring dynamic visualizations of the ancient
landscape into the hands of both archaeologists and interested visitors? In this paper presentation
we report on the development and testing of a situated simulation where the user can move around
in a given landscape and view a parallel simulation of the sea level from pre–historic times until
present on his or her smartphone or tablet. The application uses an indirect augmented reality
approach and sea level/time–period can be altered continuously. When approaching a surveyed
and/or excavated site one can also observe its extension and via spatially positioned hypertext
links access the online databases for multimodal information about the findings, etc. The prototype
runs on iOS and has been tested with a small group of visitors on location. The paper concludes
with a discussion of the user evaluation and suggestions for further work.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:30 - 13:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

13:55

S02-10 New statistical tests determining the likely reality of a connection between stone circles and astronomical phenomena
New statistical tests determining the likely reality of a connection between stone circles and astronomical phenomena

Gail Michele Higginbottom, Roger Clay

Abstract
Ruggles, in his major 1984 research project in Scotland chose to dismiss ‘from further consideration any on-site indications involving stone rings’ (C. Ruggles, Megalithic astronomy 1984: p. 61.). This was because astronomical hypotheses involving sightings across stone rings are dependent upon other variables, such as whether or not the ‘site fits a particular geometrical construction’ and therefore did not fit with his general research questions at the time. Further, no statistical test had yet been determined to deal with the associated probability issues connected to investigations of looking at orientations within a single circle. Such a test involves separate determinations of the likelihood of various statistical errors, including errors in orientation due to archaeological alignment uncertainties and the uncertainty of which part of the astronomical phenomenon was of interest as it crossed the horizon (e.g. when it first touches the horizon or its final disappearance; thus testing the intentions of the builders). Also, circles with large numbers of outer stones increased the likelihood of hitting an astronomical object by chance, increasing the statistical errors, and therefore reducing the level of probability at which one can reject the null hypothesis. No-one since then has tried to develop a purpose built statistic to deal with these issues until our own attempt. We have now created a test to empirically assess the possible astronomical associations of stone circles, which takes in account these concerns. This opens the way forward for more considered methodologies involving orientation issues connected to monuments, the landscape and/or astronomy and is thus this innovative statistic assists in ensuring more secure results for landscape archaeological research.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

13:55

S06-10 From survey to 3D modeling to 3D printing: Bramante's Nymphaeum Colonna at Genazzano
From survey, to 3D modeling, to 3D printing: Bramante's Nymphaeum Colonna at Genazzano

Tommaso Empler, Adriana Caldarone

Abstract
Today it's more and more widespread the use of new computer techniques applied to the field of archeology.
Techniques are often heterogeneous, but organized in a right pipeline allow a good understanding of the archaeological heritage.
In the study of the "Nymphaeum Colonna of Genazzano", attributed to Bramante, the integrated approach of systems such as photogrammetry, 3D modeling, virtual tour and 3D printing, allows to generate a scale model, with low margins of error, of the shape of the Nymphaeum at the beginning of the sixteenth century (researches until now were very limited). Initial activities are concentrated in the acquisition of data using a total station or TST (total station theodolite) and photographs, taken as multiple frames, recognizable in the coordinate system result from the survey with TST. A special software allows the georeferencing of the raster files with the captured data, allowing the generation of bitmap textures, used in the next step of 3D modeling and rendering. At this stage of 3D visualization it's possible to spot the differences between the Nymphaeum in the project of Bramante and the current status. The following step goes from the virtual 3D model to prototyping, through the realization of a real object by a 3D printing. The object, printed in two PLA parts, is then cleaned by the support materials and joined together. The methodology described revolutionizes and increases the "empathetic size" with the archaeological site, with its use, giving the opportunity to be better perceived either in its current state either in the historical reconstruction at the time of Bramante.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Tommaso Empler

Tommaso Empler

Scientific Manager of Laboratory of Visual and Digital Studies in Architecture, Sapienza University of Rome - Department of History, Representation and Restoration in Architecture
BA Certificate of Higher Education in Architecture in 1992 at Sapienza University of Rome. PhD degree in 1998. Researcher in 2010. | Since 1998, as external lecturer, teaches Computer Graphics at “Valle Giulia” Faculty of Architecture - Sapienza University of Rome. From 2002 to 2004, as external lecturer, teaches Simulation techniques of landscape, at “Valle Giulia” Faculty of Architecture - Sapienza University of... Read More →


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

13:55

S08-06 Co-evolution of culture and trade : Impact of cultural network topology on economic dynamics
Co-evolution of culture and trade : impact of cultural network topology on economic dynamics

Simon Carrignon, Jean-Marc Montanier, Jerome Michaud, Xavier Rubio-Campillo

Abstract
Trace of the economic activity in the archaeological record are scarce which make the understanding of past economy difficult. Nowadays economic studies could bring new tools and models that could help to fill that gap, however such models badly incorporate cultural aspect of past society.

In this study we want to mix those approaches by mixing cultural and economical model to look at how the local cultural environment of individuals in a society could influence the global dynamics of the economy of this society.

To do so we use a trade model that has been shown to converge to an optimal market without central authority. In this model, individual have to trade a good they produce in order to get other goods they need, and can change their trading strategies by imitating the strategy of the most successful individuals. 

In this previous model the cultural environment of the individual was made of every other agents in the system, i.e. all agents were able to know the success of all the other agents and imitate anyone of them. With this imitation mechanism and the simple trade system, all were quickly able to exchange the good they produce in a way that allows us to get the other goods, without the need of a central coordination. 

In the current paper we want to study in what extend the capacity of this model to converge to an optimal and decentralized market depends on the properties of the cultural network of the individuals. To do so we change the cultural environment of the agents by creating a wide variety of different typologies of networks with different properties leading to different cultural environment. For each cultural environment, we then run simulations and observe and measure the properties of the resulting economic dynamics. 

We thus aim to model the coevolution of both components (cultural and economic) and how different trade networks (based on knowledge of the Roman Empire) affect their dynamics.

In coming study we hope to fruitfully apply this approach to evaluate the probability that this kind of economy evolved during the Roman Empire, using trade network reconstructed via Archaeological and Historical evidence.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Professorboligen, stallen

13:55

S15-02 From the largest to the smallest: The use of the latest technology in digitalization of the objects from the collection of the National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk
From the largest to the smallest: the use of the latest technology in digitalization of the objects from the collection of the National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk

Piotr Dziewanowski, Janusz Różycki

Abstract
In the collection of the National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk are both items that do not exceed 1 cm in length and objects measuring over 80 meters. With such diversity of objects sizes it becomes clear that there should be used different methods of documentation relevant to the object, data that we want to get and the way of later presentation.
In April of 2015 began the process of 3D scanning of the largest object in the collection of National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk - the museum ship "Sołdek". Scanning the object, which is available on a daily basis to the public turned out to be quite a logistical challenge. The construction of the ship, narrow corridors and cramped engine room caused many problems both for scanning and later processing of data.
On the other hand there are examples of tin bottle caps that have been collected in the current year while excavating the wreckage of F53.30 ship. On some of them are preserved tinker signs, and their correct reading was necessary to confirm the chronology of the artifacts and the place of their production. Correct reading of the information on the bottle caps, due to the small size of the objects and state of preservation, required the usage of different methods than in case of the museum ship ”Sołdek”.
Equally important as data collection, their processing and interpretation is opportunity to present in attractive way the results of work on the objects from our museum collection. By using appropriate methods we can present in the virtual space both objects presented in the museum every day, and those which for technical reasons are never shown to the public.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Bibliotheca

13:55

S25-06 DOMUS: Cyber─archeology and education
DOMUS: Cyber-Archeology and Education

Alex da Silva Martire, Tatiana Bina

Abstract
This presentation is focused on the development and implementation of the project elaborated by the Laboratory for Roman Provincial Archaeology (LARP - University of Sao Paulo) named DOMUS: the first online Brazilian cyber-archaeological application that enables users to navigate in three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates an ancient house during the Roman Empire. 
It will be presented the application development process starting from its initial conception (based on archaeological remains of Pompeii and Herculaneum), through the complete modeling and texturing in Autodesk Maya software to the creation of real-time interactivity on the Unity engine.
We will focus on the implementation of our educational proposal in schools. DOMUS was applied for the very first time at Colégio Unidade Jardim (a high school in Sao Paulo). The activity consisted of asking the students (aged from 10 to 12 years) to navigate through the idealized three-dimensional Roman house in order to explore its rooms and objects, and also to perceive inherent subjects belonging to Pompeian domestic art and architecture. The main intended goals of our proposal were: a) enable an otherness experience for students (so they can reflect on the historical use of the house); b) make use of “L’histoire du quotidian” (a much more approachable way to present History to students); c) discuss the technological and historical choices that were made during the development of the application; and d) evaluate the reception of the application. In this manner, it will be presented the stages involved in the implementation of the activity with students and how our cyber-archaeological application allowed them to establish the link between archaeological remains and their own daily lives through a computer emulation.


Thursday March 31, 2016 13:55 - 14:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

14:20

S02-11 Least cost path analysis and conditional perception of prehistoric travelers
Least Cost Path Analysis and Conditional Perception of Prehistoric Travelers

Tsoni Kolev Tsonev

Abstract
The present study focusses on the unexplored so far relation between the possibilities of Least Cost Path analyses (GIS) to explore higher order prehistoric human behavior such as ‘conditional’ perception. It compares the least cost path relative to the slope of the terrain for supply with long blades of the Neolithic populations in Bulgaria to the most difficult one. It was found out that the easiest way for travelling encounters two anomalies (mismatch) of the symbolic complexes of foreign, public and private (house) domains of these prehistoric communities. 

The explanations for this complex human behavior are sought in the theory of perception. It helps to answer the question why in present day’s countryside the old dirt roads tend to make unexpected turns when linking two adjacent small villages. My working hypothesis relies on the following steps of analysis based on theoretical understanding of human perception and establishing epistemic relations. First I will provide a formalized, ideal variant of establishing such a relation by the way of introducing an impossible world into the state of real ones (combining disjunctive and conditional options). On this ground I argue that a more realistic option is the use of absolute and conditional probabilities for reaching an agreement between two or more parties that use symbolic representations of various materials and objects. The next step is to fit the scatterplot between the values from the example with absolute and conditional probabilities with the corresponding values of scale dependent exponents which show explicitly a fractal-like behavior. 

On this ground I provide additional archaeological examples from Bulgarian Neolithic that show the distribution of various artefacts made of precious rocks. Unlike traditional archaeological explanation schemes which state that within the territory of distribution of an archaeological culture the mismatch of symbolic representations is rare I find them that they are ubiquitous. These empirical data fit well with my theoretical considerations which open a real possibility for novel approach to studies of archaeological record that will help gaining better understanding of human behavior from the remote past.


Thursday March 31, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

14:20

S06-11 3D Reconstruction of Koch, Russian rowing/sailing boat of the 17th Century
3D Reconstruction of Koch, Russian Rowing/Sailing Boat of the 17th Century

Mikhail V. Vavulin, Olga V. Zaytceva, Andrei A. Pushkarev

Abstract
Koch is a Russian rowing/sailing boat adapted for the heavy Arctic conditions. A virtual 3D reconstruction of a 17th-century koch commenced in 2014. 
Precise engineering drawings were unknown to Russian boat makers of the 17th century, while the few pictures of koch and inconsistent written sources do not allow for an authentic reconstruction of all details and specific features of the vessel. The original boat parts discovered during archaeological studies in Mangazeya, the first transpolar Russian town in Siberia, served the unique resource for the reconstruction. 
The area had no forests to provide wood for construction, so houses were built from dismantled boats. Structures built entirely from framings were surveyed in Mangazeya. Boat parts are perfectly preserved in the cultural layer of permafrost. For the purposes of reconstruction, we used the two best preserved koch framings dating back to the 17th century. 
We needed to perform 3D scanning of 293 boat parts. Those parts represented individual pieces of various forms and sizes (from 0.3 m to 5.6 m). This diversity was the key factor when choosing the equipment and elaborating scanning methods. We used scanners GoScan 3D and GoScan 50 by Creaform with the optimal resolution of 1 mm. Textures were identified using photo camera Nikon D700 and the SfM (structure from motion) 3D model technique. Agisoft Photoscan Pro software was used to create low-poly models with applied textures. We used Geomagic Wrap software to perform the final processing of the scanned model and to copy the textures from low to high poly. 3D Studio max software was used to reproduce the original look of the parts by removing traces of secondary use and natural wood deformation. The same software was used for virtual assembly of the parts and 3D reconstruction of the whole boat.


Thursday March 31, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

14:20

S08-07 Defining boundaries: A GIS-based approach to the Sardinian Bronze Age
Defining boundaries: a GIS-based approach to the Sardinian Bronze Age

Francesca Cadeddu

Abstract
This paper introduces a spatial statistical analysis in a GIS environment on the settlement patterns of the Nuragic civilisation, a long-lasting culture that existed in Sardinia (Italy) from the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600 BC) to the First Iron Age (ca. 800 BC). The aim is to perform a test of the major theory proposed by scholars concerning the Nuragic civilisation, the cantonal system theory, a hierarchical settlement organisation according to which, during the Bronze Age, Sardinia was divided in regional polities, partitioned in districts called cantoni. 
In this paper the focus will be especially on settlement patterns with the purpose to assess the existence of these polities finding their territorial boundaries, as a necessary first step for the reconstruction of the socio-economic context of the Nuragic civilisation. GIS and spatial statistical analyses (i.e. Thiessen Polygons and Viewshed Analysis) are used to examine a sample area, represented by the historical region of Gallura, located in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
The method created allows for the first time to validate the existence, during the Sardinian Bronze Age, of territorial systems formed by interconnected communities, and to identify defined boundaries for these systems. The results provide new data on the Nuragic civilisation through the identification of overall common attributes in the settlement and economic strategies of these territorial systems, with some specific variances according to different environmental conditions. This research builds the foundation to analyse and reconstruct the exploitation strategies of the natural resources carried out by these Nuragic communities, creating also a provisional model of their demographic capacity.


Thursday March 31, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Professorboligen, stallen

14:20

S25-07 Democratising the digital: Sustaining community─sourcing platforms for heritage management and conservation by co-creation
Democratising the Digital: Sustaining Community-Sourcing Platforms for Heritage Management and Conservation by Co-Creation

Leif Harald Fredheim

Abstract
While the rise of interactive digital networks and technology has challenged established societal and intellectual authorities, digital heritage often exacerbates perceptions of expertise and entrenched flows of information. This paper will explore one way in which the democratising potential of the digital can be used to empower communities without neutralising professional expertise. 
As heritage conservators and managers increasingly recognise the role of non-expert contributions to informed decision-making processes, the development of tools for generating and processing consultation data digitally is the logical next step. This paper reflects on lessons learned from developing a web-application for community-sourcing heritage interpretations at the Middle Temple and the ongoing process of co-creating a similar platform with, and for, community archaeological groups affiliated with the Council for British Archaeology (CBA). A common feature of the two platforms is the integration of ‘expert’ and ‘non-expert’ interpretations of heritage and the attribution of expert interpretations to identifiable individuals rather than anonymous and omniscient third parties. 
The development of a community-sourcing platform for the CBA is part of a project investigating the sustainability of community-led approaches to archaeological stewardship, in response to recent cuts to public spending in the UK. Co-creating the platform with potential user-communities is intended to ensure that the platform satisfies user-needs, not merely the needs of professionals and academics, and can be sustained by user-communities. Participation will be facilitated through training events and concerted efforts to raise levels of digital literacy in participating communities.


Thursday March 31, 2016 14:20 - 14:45
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

14:20

S15-03 More than just a pretty picture: A review of the use of 3D printing, touch tables and virtual environments to engage the public with Lidar and the archaeology of the New Forest, U.K.
More than just a pretty picture: A review of the use of 3D printing, touch tables and virtual environments to engage the public with Lidar and the archaeology of the New Forest, U.K.

Lawrence Shaw, David John, Harry Manley, Gary Underwood

Abstract
Over the last five years, the New Forest Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) scheme has utilised remotely sensed data, including Lidar, to identify and record lost and forgotten archaeological monuments. Traditional processing techniques of these data, such as hill shade and slope analysis, allow archaeologists to identify ‘lumps and bumps’ in the landscape, created by human activity over thousands of years. Whilst great for prospection when analysed by professionals, these processed rasters only represent the original three dimensional data as a flat image. Consequently, when viewed by the general public, these interesting and engaging images are often dismissed as just ‘pretty pictures’, with little thought as to how they were produced or what they actually show.

In September 2015, to mark the mid-point of the New Forest HLS, a temporary exhibition was produced to share what had been discovered through this 3D recording technique. As part of this exhibition, researchers based at the New Forest National Park Authority and Bournemouth University looked at different ways they could represent the Lidar data to help the public understand how it was recorded and what it represents. Using developing technologies such a 3D printing, gaming engines and interactive touch tables, researchers produced a number of outputs that allowed visitors to engage with and interpret the 3D Lidar data in a number of multi-sensory ways.

This paper documents the different techniques used to produce multi-sensory outputs to teach the public about Lidar and assesses how effective these approaches are in helping people understand and interpret what they see.


Thursday March 31, 2016 14:20 - 14:55
Domus Bibliotheca

15:10

Coffee break
Coffe points in the Domus Academica, Professorboligen and the Frokostkjelleren

Thursday March 31, 2016 15:10 - 15:30
Coffee point

15:30

17:30

Conference pub at The Frokostkjeller'n

In north east corner of the University garden there will be a conference pub in the old building called “Frokostkjelleren” (Eng: breakfast cellar). During the day this will be the help center as well as point for serving coffee and lunsj, and in the evening it becomes the conference pub, arranged in cooperation with the law students at the campus. Here you will be able to by some drinks at the same prices offered to students. The pub will be open Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.


Thursday March 31, 2016 17:30 - 23:59
Frokostkjelleren University garden

19:00

Conference dinner
The conference dinner will be on the evening of Thursday 30th March, and takes place in the iconic Opera house in Oslo harbour. The opera house, designed by the Snøhetta architecture company, opened in 2008 and is already a protected heritage monument and hugely popular with residents and tourists alike. After the dinner the party will continue at the Conference pub at Frokostkjelleren. Oslo opera house

Thursday March 31, 2016 19:00 - 21:30
The Opera House Kirsten Flagstads pl. 1
 
Friday, April 1
 

08:30

S03-01 Modeling prehistoric maritime interactions in East Polynesia
Exploring Maritime Spaces with Digital Archaeology: Modelling navigation, seascapes, and coastal spaces

Emma Slayton, Crystal Safadi

Abstract
The use of GIS and modelling techniques for the study of maritime landscapes and seafaring is a growing theme in both maritime archaeology and in computational approaches to analyzing archaeological spaces. With the recent availability of large datasets, increasingly more detailed and accurate weather records, and advances in GIS applications and simulations, our understanding of seascapes, coastal landscapes, and navigation is expanding. Evaluating both the use of the water’s surface and the interaction between seascapes and adjoining land based sites is essential for understanding the use and meaning of maritime spaces in the past. Digital archaeology is crucial to the investigation of these spaces, as the archaeological record supports the existence of sea travel without any clear evidence of the specifics of this movement and computer based analysis can be used to fill in these gaps. This session may also focus on the use of water-based navigation extending to the analysis of navigation of lakes or rivers. Similarly, coastal landscapes and harbour sites may be included as they provide essential archaeological information on the connection of seascapes and landscapes, through visibility studies, database records, or analysis of coastal mobility. 

This session welcomes papers on a variety of topics that make use of GIS and modelling methods to investigate these maritime spaces, e.g. seafaring and voyaging, harbour studies, coastal landscapes, seascapes and islandscapes, surveying techniques, maritime cultural landscapes, databases, web-applications, etc. Through this session we aim to share and explore different approaches to analyzing maritime spaces that would highlight their significance.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Professorboligen, stallen

08:30

S10-01 Theorising the digital turn in archaeology
Theorising the Digital Turn in Archaeology

Sara Perry, James Taylor

Abstract
“We are all digital archaeologists” is an increasingly common refrain amongst practitioners today. However, this ubiquity of computational approaches in archaeology seems hardly understood. Debates about the philosophical or cultural dimensions of digital technologies in the discipline have a deep legacy, yet the technical capacities of these tools still tend to eclipse meaningful critique of their implications. Problematically, it is usually the *applications* of computers that become the overwhelming focus of digital archaeological discussions at our conferences, in our written work, and often in our classrooms too.

This trend to value the technical above the theoretical is one that is seen across many fields — and it is made worse by the fact that it tends to betray itself again and again as any new piece of gear is added to disciplinary toolkits. The Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology enterprise itself hints at the predicament, for applied methodology is foregrounded in the organisation’s very name, with richer qualitative analyses of the digital seemingly consigned to the backstage. As an introduction to digiTAG, then, this paper makes a case for the necessity of reversing this situation, prioritizing critical engagement above practical exposition. To do so, we review the history of – and tensions between – digital methods in archaeology and the intellectual and social systems that shape (and are shaped by) them.

Ultimately, we aim here to broach a range of issues that habitually go unspoken: How do computer applications in archaeology intersect with local and global socio-politico-economic complexes? How do they perpetuate or challenge structural inequalities? How do they contribute to wider patterns of consumption, excess, loss and waste? How are they folded into the institutional status quo? And how do they shape not only our thinking and doing of archaeology, but so too our more intimate ways of being-in-the-world?

Moderators
SP

Sara Perry

University of York | Twitter: @archaeologistsp | | | Personal Page: http://saraperry.wordpress.com

Speakers

Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

08:30

S13-01 Digital archaeology and the science of cities: Some observations on the application of spatial interaction models to the study of Minoan urbanism
Digital Archaeology and the Science of Cities: some observations on the application of spatial interaction models to the study of Minoan urbanism

Eleftheria Paliou

Abstract
A grand disciplinary challenge for Digital Archaeology is to increase its impact in society by partaking in a cross-disciplinary dialogue on contemporary issues, and in this way to contribute to advances both in archaeology and in other scientific disciplines. In recent years there is a steady increase in the number of published archaeological works that draw upon developments in contemporary urban geography, and in particular computational and mathematical modelling, to study a variety of past human and urban phenomena, such as settlement evolution, population movement and growth, the transmission of cultural traits, trade, economy and socio-political organisation. Such approaches are often the result of cross-disciplinary collaboration between archaeologists, physicists and urban geographers and have been encouraged by a growing realization that archaeology could constructively contribute to advances in a Science of Cities (Batty 2013), offering an abundance of material evidence against which contemporary scientific theories, concepts and methods can be evaluated and tested across time and space. Some of the methodologies that fall under the umbrella of this urban science, namely Space Syntax methods, have already met many applications in archaeology, while others, for example urban scaling, are only just emerging in archaeological studies.
This paper will discuss briefly the reciprocal relationship between Digital Archaeology and the Science of Cities before focusing on a particular type of modelling that has attracted much attention in archaeological investigations in the last five years: simulations of spatial interaction that draw from “entropy maximising” approaches. By presenting applications of these models to the study of Minoan urbanism it will discuss the benefits and problems linked to their use in archaeology at various spatial scales. 
Batty, M. 2013, The New Science of Cities, MIT press.

Moderators
Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

08:30

S14-01 Agent-based modeling and complexity science: The next step in archaeological theory?
Agent-based modeling and complexity science: the next step in archaeological theory?

Stefani A Crabtree

Abstract
Agent-based modeling is on the rise in archaeology; yet how do we decide what questions are appropriate to ask when using this tool? Are all study areas, and indeed all questions, best approached through an agent-based modeling framework? If not, which questions are best answered through this approach?
In this paper I place complexity science approaches within the framework of canons of archaeological literature. I then explore which questions are best asked, and answered, through agent-base modeling approaches. Finally I demonstrate how a simple agent-based model of southern France helps clarify standing questions. Finally, I briefly introduce a more complex model to show how agent-based modeling can articulate with both simple theoretical models and complex realistic models.
Processual archaeology favored an approach that looked at how variables, such as societies, or levels of hierarchy, or maximal size of community, led to the construction of the archaeological record. Post-processualism, on the other hand, favored exploring the individual experience in the past, which can confuse an understanding of overarching structures. Complexity approaches, however, honor the individual experience by showing how individual decisions do matter, yet allow these individuals to interact to create larger overarching structures. 
This articulation of the micro-scale to the macro-scale feeds into how to approach archaeology questions with complexity tools. I take a step-by-step approach to showing which questions agent-based modeling can directly examine, and how they can be useful for answering questions that had been posed by processualists and post-processualists alike. I then demonstrate these questions through two models: a simple model of resource trade in southern France, and a complex model of the development of hierarchy in the U.S. Southwest. These two models are on the opposite spectrum from each other in terms of intricacy, yet they succinctly demonstrate how ABM approaches can examine diverse questions.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Bibliotheca

08:30

S16-01 A guide to good practice for archaeological network science
A guide to good practice for archaeological network science

Tom Brughmans

Abstract
The use of network science techniques for the study of the past shows great potential and has recently become more common practice. However, this increased use of network science techniques has also led to the identification of particular challenges posed by their archaeological application, which deserve more critical attention. In order to overcome all these challenges and uncover new and useful archaeological uses of network science it is important that archaeological network science should be considered more than just a hype: archaeological network scientists should be cautious to make grand claims about the novelty of their methods and instead enable a larger body of archaeologists to critique their approaches.

In this talk I will argue there is a need for best practice guidelines for archaeological network science. I consider this a task that should be performed in collaboration with more mathematically- and computer-literate archaeologists, who should work towards a ‘guide to good practice’ accessible to all archaeologists, and provide critical applied case studies as examples. By doing so, archaeologists will be provided with the means to evaluate how and whether network science is a tool that can lead to innovative insights in their own research contexts, as well as enable a larger group of archaeologists to critique the ever increasing number of archaeological network science studies.

Moderators
Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

08:30

S19-01 Towards a national infrastructure for semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage in Norway
Towards a national infrastructure for semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage in Norway

Martin Kermit, Øivind Due Trier

Abstract
Recently, the Norwegian government decided to finance a new national digital terrain model (DTM) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) at 2 pulses per m2 in forested areas and automatic image matching above the tree line. This may open up for semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage in any region of interest in Norway, provided that the cultural heritage being sought manifests itself in the DTM. However, this calls for the development of a national infrastructure combining the storage and retrieval of ALS data with automatic detection methods. 

A pilot web portal for this infrastructure has been developed for use by archaeologists in some county administrations in Norway. The user specifies an area of interest, and selects which types of cultural heritage to look for. Since the new national DTM is not implemented yet, the user will need to upload an ALS data set. As the processing of large ALS data sets may be time consuming, the user will be notified when the task has been completed by an e-mail, which also contains a link where the processing result in the form of vector files may be downloaded. 

Currently, semi-automatic detection of the following types of cultural heritage is supported: grave mound, pitfall trap, charcoal burning pit, and charcoal kiln. We plan to add semi-automatic detection of hollow ways and stone fences.

The output is one set of files for each type of cultural heritage. Within each type of cultural heritage, the detection results are grouped into six levels of confidence. The detections should be viewed and evaluated successively by an experienced archaeologist; starting with the highest confidence level. 

The pilot portal is already a useful tool for archaeologists in the participating pilot counties in Norway, and demonstrates the need for a national infrastructure for processing of ALS data.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:30 - 08:55
Domus Media, Aulaen

08:55

S03-02 Reconstructing and modelling the Stone Age landscape in Southeastern Norway
Reconstructing and modelling the Stone Age landscape in Southeastern Norway

Gjermund Steinskog

Abstract
During 2000-2015 the Museum of Cultural History carried out several large-scale excavation projects, instigated by major infrastructure projects. Combined, these projects have excavated c. 100 Stone Age sites. Of importance are also surveyed, but unexcavated sites which are registered in Askeladden, the Directorate for Cultural Heritage´s national database of archaeological sites. 

The region of Southeastern Norway is one of the few places in the world that has experienced continual coastal uplift since the end of the last Ice Age. Today, the Stone Age sites are situated at different heights within the landscape, from 20 to 150 meters above the present sea level. The sites are commonly located in remote hilly and woody inland areas, but when the sites were in use, they were situated close to the contemporary shoreline, in a landscape composed of large fjords and islands.

When working with Stone Age archaeology in Southeastern Norway, it is necessary to have tools for interpretation and reconstruction of the prehistoric coastal landscape, both on a local and regional scale. As such, GIS-based landscape models are essential tools for archaeological interpretations of these sites. This presentation will focus on how to use the different types of elevation data available from the Norwegian Mapping Authority, how to make palaeo-maps and different GIS-based models of the Stone Age coastal landscape, and finally demonstrate how this is integrated into the archaeologists work with the sites.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Professorboligen, stallen

08:55

S10-02 A plea for (non-mathematical) reason. Rethinking the use of computational methods in archaeology
A Plea for (non-mathematical) Reason. Rethinking the use of computational methods in archaeology

Catalin Nicolae Popa, Oliver Nakoinz

Abstract
In this paper we argue that while computational methods offer exciting possibilities to archaeology, their large-scale unreflected use is making our discipline too mechanical and mathematical. 

There is little doubt that many digital methods have made a positive contribution to our work. The use of digital techniques during and in combination with archaeological fieldwork has unquestionably given us more control over what we excavate. Such methods have also provided simpler and more interactive ways to explore our data and convey them to others. But they are no substitute to interpretation!

However, some computational methods are frequently employed as a means to explain the material record, with near total disregard of archaeological theory. Most of these approaches fall into the category of computer modelling and simulation. There are a plethora of studies and presentations utilizing such methods with little theoretical grounding. For example agent-based modelling papers, where theories of agency are rarely referred to. Additionally, results are often taken for granted, as if offering factual solutions, without critical evaluation and interpretation.

Such use of computational methods is damaging to the community employing them and to archaeology as a whole. The over-enthusiasm with these approaches, the belief in the objective nature of ‘the machine’ (i.e. computer), and the wish to transform archaeologists into applied mathematicians brings the dawn of a New New Archaeology (sic!). Currently, many scholars are still sceptical towards studies employing such methods, contributing to a division of the discipline. But archaeology does not need another theory war! We suggest an integrated approach, with balanced parts of method and theory. For archaeologists using computational methods this implies a wider integration of post-processual critique. In this manner, the full potential of these approaches can be realised as they would find their well-deserved place in archaeology.

Moderators
SP

Sara Perry

University of York | Twitter: @archaeologistsp | | | Personal Page: http://saraperry.wordpress.com

Speakers

Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

08:55

S13-02 A tale of two city blocks from Ostia, the port-town of Imperial Rome
A Tale of Two City Blocks from Ostia, the Port-Town of Imperial Rome

Hanna Stöger

Abstract
Neighbourhoods and the social use of urban space are areas of growing interest that concern both contemporary city planners and archaeologists. Based on a detailed examination of the archaeological remains of two distinct city blocks (IV ii and iv) from Ostia (Imperial Rome’s principal port city), the proposed paper explores the spatial properties of these urban quarters and seeks to identify spaces which potentially fostered social cohesion and community building. By combining archaeological and syntactical methods of spatial analysis (space syntax), novel insights have been generated regarding the physical environment in which Roman city dwellers lived their daily lives. The shared courtyards and passage spaces of Block IV ii suggest a continuity of community focus over a period of almost four hundred years. In contrast, Block IV iv appears to lack shared spaces and revealed a spatial organisation of self-contained buildings focused on individual access to public space. Block IV ii is characterised by internal courtyards suggestive of collective use within its own perimeter; Block IV iv looks outward toward external community building with activities centred on the street confining the block. The space syntax tools allow us to reconstruct the generative processes active in neighbourhood development. The combined archaeological and syntactical analyses reveal insights into the flexibility of ancient Roman urban structures and offer several suggestive glimpses into the urban community that sustained these blocks and the wider city in the long-term.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

08:55

S14-02 How agent-based models can be used to investigate the evolution of social complexity in the past: A test of circumscription theory in the Valley of Oaxaca
How agent-based models can be used to investigate the evolution of social complexity in the past: A test of circumscription theory in the Valley of Oaxaca

Alice Williams

Abstract
Complex societies with multiple levels of hierarchy and extended populations of unrelated individuals emerged relatively recently in the human past. How and why these complex societies formed from small-scale groups of people are fundamental questions to ask in archaeology. Attempts to explain this shift have often been verbally argued without explicit testing. The aim of this research is to test different hypotheses at a regional level by comparing the output from agent-based models with archaeological data. The emergence of increasingly complex social organisation as a beneficial trait at both the individual and group level will be understood within an evolutionary framework. Agent-based models will simulate the actions of individual villages (whether to move or accept a subordinate position) based on the costs and benefits of their situation. It is predicted that increasing the costs of moving (through increasing levels of environmental circumscription) will increase the rate at which hierarchical societies form as a successful strategy. In addition, it is predicted that a model based on real-world environmental data will be comparable with the archaeological record. Archaeological and environmental data from the Valley of Oaxaca in Mexico will be used to test these predictions. The data spans 3,000 years from early small-scale villages to the formation and collapse of the first state-level society in Mesoamerica, and is ideal to investigate changes in social complexity over time. This research shows how agent-based models can be used to link micro- with macro-level processes in the past to understand why some human societies evolved higher levels of social complexity than others.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Bibliotheca

08:55

S16-02 Exploring formal SNA approaches to funerary contexts in Early Iron Age Italy
Exploring formal SNA approaches to funerary contexts in Early Iron Age Italy

Lieve Donnellan

Abstract
This paper explores various possible ways to analyse evidence from funerary contexts with formal SNA methods. Despite the availability of large datasets from grave yards of the Early Iron Age in the Mediterranean, formal SNA has hardly ever been applied to this type of data. Research of funerary contexts has traditionally focussed on typologies of objects and tombs, and the religious meanings of death, but a formal SNA has the potential to contribute significantly to the scholarly understanding of a number of aspects, going from trends in the overall population, the evolution of such trends through time, to social stratification strategies, such as social distance through ritual performance, and intercultural interaction. The paper presents a summary of the analysis from two case-studies from Campania (the sites of Pithekoussai and Pontecagnano), whose funerary data sets have been digitised and subsequently analysed with SNA software. Various analytic tools, offered by standard SNA software packages, allow to ask and reassess several questions pertaining to the social make-up and interaction of the populations in question. The paper focusses especially on methodological questions and problems in translating conventionally-published excavation data, deriving from funerary contexts, to digital datasets that can be analysed with formal, quantitative methods. It also elaborates on some tools, available in standard SNA packages, that can be used to study social and cultural interaction in past populations.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

08:55

S19-02 Autonomous stereoscopic photosphere system for archaeological site virtualization
Autonomous Stereoscopic Photosphere System for Archaeological Site Virtualization

Dimitri Schreiber, Dominique Meyer, Dominique Rissolo, Falko Kuester

Abstract
Over the last decade remote sensing has greatly improved in both its realism and coverage. Miniaturization and reduction in the cost of sensors, as well as game changing advances resulting from the development of new technologies have played a critical role in these improvements. This oral paper will explore an imaging technology, CaveCamX, that has been enabled as a result of these advances. CaveCamX is a small binocular two axis gimbal system used for creating high resolution 3D photospheres, combined with GPS and IMU data. This enables better coregistration internally within a single photosphere, and externally between heterogeneous datasets, including fusion with point clouds generated from Photogrammetry and Lidar. This decreases human processing time by automatically recording location and orientation of the dataset which would previously be recorded manually and therefore often left out or lost. The attitude data will hopefully enable fully automatic stitching of stereoscopic datasets without the commonly associated motion sickness by constraining the system, limiting how the software can warp the images. Its small size and low power consumption allow it to be easily taken with on field expeditions, without compromises in photo quality or excessive weight, like other systems. 
CaveCamX enables remote visualization of archaeological sites, allowing researchers to be virtually immersed in the captured scene without having to travel across the globe to be physically present, with high resolution (1GP sized datasets). It enables researchers to remotely view an area as if they were there (with the constraint that they are limited to a few locations in the area) with great detail, in contrast with other systems like LIDAR which provide different advantages.


Friday April 1, 2016 08:55 - 09:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

09:20

S03-03 Uncovering routes to Grenada: Exploring possible routes between mainland South America and the Southern Lesser Antilles
Uncovering Routes to Grenada: Exploring possible routes between mainland South America and the Southern Lesser Antilles

Emma Slayton, Jan Christoph Athenstädt, Jan Hildenbrand

Abstract
Archaeologists have been attempting to uncover past sea routes through computer analysis since the early 1990s. Though the trend did not carry over into the Caribbean sphere until the turn of the century, many of the themes that had been established by the study of seafaring in the Pacific were applied to this region as well. One of these themes is the focus on the colonization of islands by early seafarers. While it is important to focus on initial connections, those voyages were only one way in which the sea was crossed by early seafarers. Reciprocal voyaging, or the process through which communities kept in contact over time through the act of canoeing, is equally as important, as it allows us to evaluate ongoing interactions that we see reflected in archaeological assemblages throughout the Caribbean. The interruption or adaption of these established reciprocal networks take are also of interest to archaeologists, to determine the affect Europeans on local social rhythms. 
From the time Grenada was first sighted by Columbus in 1498, the structure of social networks in Antilles had already begun to change due to the influx of new peoples, new technology, and new materials. To determine the effects on the relationship between mainland South America, in particular Guyana and Venezuela, and the Southern islands of the Lesser Antilles, in particular Grenada, pathways will be modelled to determine the ease of movement between these areas. This paper proposes to test links between sites using a new method of calculating isochrones taking into account both current and wind data. Through the use of this method, we will try to evaluate the effect of seasonal fluctuations on the model from a new perspective. 
Through this case study we hope to establish the benefits of using a directed ischrone method to understand and explore sea based pathways and uncovering the layout of past links between inter-island and inter-mainland communities.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Professorboligen, stallen

09:20

S13-03 Kerkenes Dag: Materializing an Imaginary City
Kerkenes Dag: Materializing an Imaginary City

Scott Branting, Tuna Kalayci

Abstract
Kerkenes is a massive pre-Hellenistic city in Anatolia. It covers 2.5 square kilometers and surrounded by a strong defensive wall, running for seven kilometers. The city was burnt down, sometime during the mid-first millennium BCE and no other extensive occupation disturbed archaeological remains, providing unique preservation conditions. Modern explorations in this Ancient City started in 1993, employing a wide range of innovative geospatial technologies. High resolution photographs from hot air balloons and tethered blimps, satellite imagery analysis, DGPS survey and especially geophysical prospection at the site already revealed numerous domestic structures, compounds, empty-spaces, courtyards, road systems and others; opening a new research frontier in the study of ancient studies. 

This study aims to highlight the importance of acquiring close-to-complete spatial datasets using multi-sensor technologies. To accomplish this, we suggest an extremely detailed city plan, draped over a very high resolution Digital Elevation Model, opening up possibilities for detailed 3D reconstructions of the built environment and testing of various archaeological hypotheses in the making of the city. Second, we reveal a pedestrian Transportation Geographical Information System (GIS-T) approach to model movement at this Iron Age city. The model incorporates models of human locomotion with a theoretical framework based on time-space continuum principles. Results from these models highlight movement densities, city neighborhoods; but also reveal variations in the agency of movement.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

09:20

S14-03 Simulating archaeological landscape formation to understand late Holocene population dynamics and mobility in arid Australia
Simulating archaeological landscape formation to understand late Holocene population dynamics and mobility in arid Australia

Benjamin Davies, Simon Holdaway, Patricia Fanning

Abstract
Archaeological interpretation depends on the formation of patterns in the material record, but patterns are not always discernible as the outcomes of a single set of processes. In Australia’s desert regions, interpretations of patterning in late Holocene deposits range from intermittent occupation by bands of hypermobile foragers to growing semi-resident populations of complex hunter-gatherers. In particular, archaeologists have focused on the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates that show trends and gaps consistent with interpretations of population dynamics, periodicity in occupation, and time-dependent preservation. We constructed an exploratory agent-based model around the concept of the palimpsest to evaluate the ability of the coupled processes of cultural and sedimentary deposition and erosion to form these patterns in a surface record of heat-retainer hearths. Initial results suggest that explanations invoking population dynamics or geomorphic processes have the capacity to produce qualitatively similar outcomes. Models are then reconfigured to evaluate a second proxy: optically-stimulated luminescence dates obtained from hearth stones, in order to evaluate the differential influence of these formational processes on these two proxies. The results of the modelling exercises are discussed in relation to patterning observed in the archaeological landscape at Rutherfords Creek, New South Wales, and are used to argue that the record is consistent with neither intermittent occupation or appreciable population growth, but instead indicates regular visitation by groups performing a fairly consistent set of activities during the period of interest. This study demonstrates the suitability of agent-based models for studying archaeological formation, but also how simulations can be used as both ‘tools to think with’ and as mechanisms for developing tests of theoretical ideas.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Bibliotheca

09:20

S16-03 Wine trade from Roman Crete: Onomastic─geographic network analysis
Wine trade from Roman Crete: onomastic-geographic network analysis

Ignacio Morer, José Remesal, Albert Diaz-Guilera, Luce Prignano, Daniel Martin Arroyo

Abstract
We present a case study developed within the EPNet Project (ERC-2013-ADG 340828), whose main goal is to characterize the dynamics of the commercial trade system during the Roman Empire.

We analyse a subset of archaeological data found in Pompeii, namely, the greek epigraphy (tituli picti) on the cretese amphorae. It represents a promising dataset, given that greek names can be crossed with the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names (LGPN) and linked to geographical data. Since we deal with two different kinds of entities, names and places, we represent the relations between them through a weighted bipartite network. 

The bipartite network is built considering that the epigraphic data is incomplete and ambiguous, and foremost, that there are a few onomastic aspects to be taken into account. On the one hand, there are some very common names (homonimy) that don’t provide significant information. On the other, there exist highly similar names that are likely to belong to the same families. Therefore, we introduce a set of probabilistic rules to weigh the links of our network that, together with the reference of the whole LGPN, allow us to:
Include the ambiguity of the data with very few assumptions.
Identify homonimy cases and remove its effect.
Check for family names grouping.

With the aim of detecting relevant trade-related information, we extract the community structure of the bipartite system. It is an appropriate baseline to detect different types of nodes according to their function in the network [1]. The goal is to identify possible roles for the names and places as a function of two topological variables in two-mode networks [2], by means of a functional cartography of families and places of different types (ports, production and consumption places, etc.).

[1] Guimerà & Nunes Amaral (2005)
[2] Saavedra et al.(2009)


Friday April 1, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

09:20

S19-03 Systematic literature review on automated monument detection: A remote investigation on patterns within the field of automated monument detection
Systematic Literature Review on Automated Monument Detection - A remote investigation on patterns within the field of automated monument detection

Karl Hjalte Maack Raun, Duncan Paterson

Abstract
Automated procedures are necessary to cope with the vast amounts of digitized information within the field of cultural heritage. During the last 15 years, digital landscape analysis and detection of cultural heritage monuments developed rapidly especially due to the availability of LiDAR data. With the increasing amount of information, automated procedures are suitable for monitoring and surveying known monuments, as well as detecting unknown monuments. 
This study measures the state of automated procedures within cultural heritage detection and management, by correlating key terms for LiDAR data with academic citations of their use. Cross-referencing this impact measure with occurrences of “automated procedures” enhances our understanding of best practices. We analyze these results, using the methods of network analysis (NA) with respect to personal, institutional, and financial ties and actors involved in automated monument detection. 
In addition, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) using standardized search structures on publications related to “automated monument detection” for LiDAR data from 2000 to 2015 reveals the evolution of the field. The observable trends and patterns within the combined results of (NA) and (SLR) allow for a critical assessment of current research practices. Based on these results we conclude by formulating recommendations for future implementations.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:20 - 09:45
Domus Media, Aulaen

09:45

S03-04 Looking for the lost harbor. Role of non-invasive archaeological methods in the reconstruction of the seascape of an ancient city Paphos
Looking for the lost harbor. Role of non-invasive archaeological methods in the reconstruction of the seascape of an ancient city Paphos

Paweł Ćwiąkała, Kasper Jan Hanus, Karolina Matwij, Wojciech Matwij, Łukasz Miszk, Wojciech Ostrowski

Abstract
Paphos, Hellenistic-Roman capital of Cyprus, was one of the most important trade centers in the East Mediterranean. Until recently, it was believed that only a singular harbor was located in Paphos in the east-south part of the city, the same place where the modern haven is now situated. When research on the Agora of the city has begun, the hypothesis about existence of the another harbor was formulated. It was primarily based on the analysis of the spatial organization of the city. Investigation of the layout of the city walls and gates gave assumptions that such hypothesis could be positively verified. The broad spectrum of non-invasive methods was implemented for reconstruction of the seascape of north-west part of the city where the harbor was expected to be found. At first, geoarchaelogical research has proved that terrain behind the north-west wall had been silted by geologic material transported by Koskinas river after deforestation of the Troodos Mountains during the ancient times. It explains why there are no visible remains of the ancient harbor infrastructure. As the next step aerial prospection was conducted. The orthophotoplan and DTM of the Nea Paphos Archaeological Park was created using UAV. Obtained data were post-processed using Agisoft software. DTM allowed to register remains of the dock or shipyard outside the wall. 3D model of the research area was also created using TLS. The model was used to simulate sea level in ancient era which was two and a half meters higher than presently. All data gave a strong proves to confirm existing of the harbor in the north-west part of Paphos and allowed to reconstruct seascape of this part of the city. To final confirm these arrangements geophysical and archaeological research will be also conducted.
In this paper, the role of integrated approach in extension of the range of digital tools for modelling and reconstruction of the past seascapes will be shown.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Professorboligen, stallen

09:45

S10 Discussion 1
Moderators
SP

Sara Perry

University of York | Twitter: @archaeologistsp | | | Personal Page: http://saraperry.wordpress.com

Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

09:45

S13-04 From data visualization to hypothesis generation: An integrated approach for the study of past cityscapes
From data visualization to hypothesis generation: an integrated approach for the study of past cityscapes

Chiara Piccoli

Abstract
When it comes to the macro-scale analysis of past cityscapes, traditional 2D mapping presents limitations in grasping the complex relationship between landscape, built environment and find assemblages. A methodology that includes data recording, visualization and analysis in a 3D environment is better suited to pursue the study and interpretation of ancient cities from a holistic perspective.
This paper discusses the methodology that we have applied to deal with the survey data of the Graeco-Roman town of Koroneia, Greece. The adopted multidisciplinary approach is based on the creation of a 3D GIS that allows an intuitive data interpretation and an interactive formulation of reconstruction hypotheses on the town layout. Koroneia is used as a show case for the range of analyses and interpretations that are enabled in a 3D environment and that can be applied to similar datasets.
The core of the methodology relates to the development of a library of procedural rules (i.e. customizable scripts) that are compiled using the software Esri CityEngine. The rules written for this project enable us 1) to make previously hidden patterns in the dataset more easily visible; 2) to automatically calculate the total built-up area and floor area of housing blocks, thus allowing the estimation of population size based on explicit assumptions; 3) to perform visibility analysis in the 3D GIS environment, in order to formulate hypotheses on the visual relationships between buildings, and on the planning choices made to negotiate between the hilly terrain morphology and the city layout. 
Finally, this paper discusses the development of a Unity3D based walk-through, which complements the quantitative visibility analysis performed in ArcGIS with an experiential navigation offering a pedestrian perspective into the virtual environment.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

09:45

S14-04 Reinforcement learning for decision making in agent-based models
Reinforcement learning for decision making in agent-based models

Jean-Marc Montanier, Xavier Rubio-Campillo

Abstract
Understanding the decision-making processes within past societies is a
challenging aspect for archaeological research. In order to validate our
understanding of these behaviours, an ideal workflow would be to simulate the
behaviours that we imagine are correct. We can then observe, if the imagined
behaviours reproduce the evidence collected from the terrain.

ABM has proved to be an efficient approach toward the realisation of this
vision. However, many of the phenomenons we wish to study, require the
adaptation of the agents to the context they live. For example, it would be
interesting to study the behaviors of gatherer agents in front of changing
environments. To face this type of situations, there is a clear need for
adaptation abilities. Unfortunately, most of the current behavioural
architectures used in ABMs do not let the agent adapt continuously its
behaviour so as to fit the environment, thus restricting the modeling
possibilities.

Reinforcement learning algorithms have been proposed to address learning
problems within multi-agent settings. Once applied to past-societies models,
this learning method faces two main challenges: each agent observes only part
of the world and the number of states and actions an agent can face is
potentially extremely large. Similar challenges have been previously been
encountered by researcher applying reinforcement learning methods to
multi-robots scenarios. Within this article we aim to present which of the
solutions previously developed can be applied to create models of past
societies.

Moreover, the use of a UCT architecture has been previously proposed to address
the challenge of learning in past-societies models. We will draw a comparison
between reinforcement learning and UCT approaches. This comparisons will
highlight the difficulties each approach is facing, specifically for an
application to past-societies models


Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Bibliotheca

09:45

S16-04 Least-Cost Networks and Network Analysis: Modelling trade relations in early medieval East Central Europe
Least-Cost Networks and Network Analysis: Modelling trade relations in early medieval East Central Europe

Donat Wehner

Abstract
Medieval trade relations can be considered from many different angles. One can attend to the actors, their identities, motivations, manners and perception as well as the circumstances of travelling and equipment or one can deal with types and amount of traded goods, to name just a few of the possible aspects. The concern of this contribution is to reveal the structures, intensities and directions of commodity flows on different spatial and temporal scales in East Central Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Networks of nodes and edges serve as visualizations of the economic relations. Sites with an increased density of interaction function as nodes, economic flows on transportation routes between these nodes serve as edges. The commodity flows can be weighted asymmetrically as well as differentially. Starting from networks created from least cost path routes and graph theoretical models network analysis and space syntax are used to obtain additional information on the structural characteristics and mechanisms of the networks. One issue is the network density. Are there many trade relations or rather few? Bridges and structural gaps are of interest as well. Do sites exist which connect economically densely entangled areas and where are such areas not connected? The importance of different sites in the exchange-networks is also relevant. It can be defined e.g. by the amount of relations (degree centrality), the closeness to other interaction hubs (closeness centrality) or in its strategical position between other interaction hubs (betweenness centrality). In order to achieve a dynamic and differentiated result, multiplex multimodal network analysis is used. Different artifact-groups like coins, so called imports, scales and weights as well as geographical distances and written sources of trade relations in diverse place-time-configurations are included as representatives and parts of trade. By combining various relevant models, data records, spatial layers (local, regional, supra-regional) and time slices, dynamic networks can be created and interpreted in a comparative and complementary way. This approach provides an opportunity for understanding the significance of relationships within and between past material culture, individuals, and groups. The alternating relation between physical distance, commodity distribution and contemporary perception of commodity flows can for example be identified by using affiliation-networks of Least-Cost Path relations, artifact-relations and trade relations known from written sources. One gets an idea of different types of linking in the context of trade activities, what they are good for and how they are related to each other. Thereby, connections in the network can be favored, created or handicapped and impeded by space. Complex feedback-loops between the creation of space through networks and the creation of networks through space can be observed. By doing so, mediation between physical and social space is created similarly.


Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

09:45

S19-04 Spatial analysis of Ancient Egyptian Monuments. Case study: Late Period private funerary monuments of Thebes
Spatial Analysis of Ancient Egyptian Monuments. Case Study: Late Period Private Funerary Monuments of Thebes

Anja Wutte, Peter Ferschin, Georg Suter

Abstract
The term of rock-cut tombs describe a type of funerary monuments found all over Egyptian history. Their designs and building concepts show a strong coherency within their local occurrence, in a specific timeframe and even within a social status class. 
The chosen case study was analyzing private funerary rock-cut monuments of the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Egyptian dynasty, located in the Asasif, in Theben West, the modern Luxor. The major goal for this project was to obtain design principles of those rock-cut funerary architectures. 
The structures were digitalized and converted into a BIM (Building Information Modeling) model to be analyzed for certain architectural properties (e.g. accessibility of spaces and areas like semi-public offering places and non-public cult places, decoration positions and natural lighting). Social, local and chronological data was integrated and the models could be compared with each other on the basis of those informations. Questions like the relationship between different premises and natural lighting, the position of decoration categories or the differences of semi-public and non-public parts in ratio to their accessibility could be answered. These analytical methods offer insights into the design principals of the monuments.
Additionally a Model Comparison Tool was implemented to offer interactive and visible information about the building typologies of the funerary monuments. This tool visualizes information about the buildings in combination with additional metadata (e.g. social parameters) within an abstracted spatial representation of the building. The monuments can be arranged by a set of parameters like social rank or sex of the owner, chronology of construction and land consumption. The developed tools are independent of archaeological content and type of buildings. 

Keywords: BIM, space model, spatial analysis


Friday April 1, 2016 09:45 - 10:10
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:10

Coffee break
Coffee points in the Domus Academica, Professorboligen and the Frokostkjelleren

Friday April 1, 2016 10:10 - 10:30
Coffee point

10:30

S03-05 Simulating Pre-Hispanic canoe navigation in Lake Cocibolca, Nicaragua
Simulating Pre-Hispanic Canoe Navigation in Lake Cocibolca, Nicaragua

Adam Kevin Benfer

Abstract
While the earliest computational method for modeling prehistoric human movement was developed during the late 1960s to simulate maritime voyages, other navigable bodies of water (e.g., lakes and rivers) have received very little attention in computational archaeology. Just as with the sea, the archaeological record supports the existence of travel on inland water bodies often without clear evidence of the specifics of this movement. Since the same environmental variables of surface current and wind patterns and cultural variables of navigator skill, vessel shape, and propulsion method are crucial to all aquatic travel simulations, the computational methods that were developed for simulating voyages in the open sea can be modified for lacustrine environments. As a case study, I focus on the largest lake in Central America, Nicaragua’s Lake Cocibolca, which covers an area of about 8,264 square kilometers, but remains surprisingly shallow, with an average depth of 12.5 meters. Because the lake is subject to persistent, strong northeasterly winds, some archaeologists have claimed that pre-Hispanic navigation was infrequent due to rough waters. However, archaeological studies in the Lake Cocibolca region have documented an abundance of ceramics and worked stone that the past inhabitants produced and traded widely during the later pre-Hispanic periods (AD 300-1550). This lake also features two large volcanic islands and hundreds of small islands, most of which contain archaeological sites with petroglyphs, monumental statuary, and mound architecture. Combined with the ethnohistoric record, it is clear that the pre-Hispanic inhabitants of the Lake Cocibolca region regularly navigated these waters using paddle-propelled dugout canoes. Computer-based voyage simulations in this windy lacustrine environment reveal the actual navigability of Lake Cocibolca during the later pre-Hispanic periods.


Friday April 1, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Professorboligen, stallen

10:30

S10-04 Epistemological considerations on image-based 3D representations: Bridging the paradigms through the objectification of field interpretation
Epistemological considerations on image-based 3D representations: bridging the paradigms through the objectification of field interpretation

Matteo Pilati

Abstract
This paper investigates what image-based 3D models are and what their contribution is for archaeological epistemology. Given that this particular form of digital representation is integrated in documentation work, data management systems, as well as in different analytical and interpretive contexts, several assumptions are made about their contribution to information generation. On these premises, the risk is that the epistemological affordance of image-based 3D models becomes regulated by methodological frameworks which may not acknowledge the full palette of heuristic, informative, and documentary values inherent to these representations.
The first point to be discussed relates to the automatization of the image-based 3D reconstruction process, its dependence on raster data and use of algorithms, which simulate optic perception, meaning that image-based 3D models are profoundly mimetic, true to reality and un-interpreted representations of archaeological contexts. From a methodological point of view, these models reproduce situations precedent to their representation-based interpretation and provide objective evidence for contextual analytical work. Another point is that given the truthfulness of image-based 3D models to reality and their detail degree they do not simply represent the physical boundaries of an excavated context or unit. Image-based 3D recording captures the archaeological contexts in a broader context of documentation surfaces, features, alongside details, actions which may be considered marginalia, and often cropped. This visual information is a record of the historicity of the excavation work, revealing onsite interpretation dynamics; it can be employed to inform excavation strategies, evaluate analyses and interpretations, promote reflexivity and adaptive documentation strategies, and enhance the historical presence of the interpreting subjects in the digital archive.
Based on these observations, this paper states the capability of image-based 3D representations in providing objective and detailed information of subjectively shaped material evidence, hence drawing closer epistemological positions traditionally perceived as reciprocally opposed.

Moderators
SP

Sara Perry

University of York | Twitter: @archaeologistsp | | | Personal Page: http://saraperry.wordpress.com

Speakers

Friday April 1, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

10:30

S14-05 An agent-based approach to weighted decision making in the spatially and temporally variable South African Palaeoscape
An agent-based approach to weighted decision making in the spatially and temporally variable South African Palaeoscape

Colin D. Wren, Chloe Atwater, Kim Hill, Marco Janssen, Curtis Marean

Abstract
Even a “simple” human foraging pattern has a large number of moving parts. This requires a complex decision making process to effectively exploit the spatially and temporally variable resources in an environment. Here we present a general framework, based in optimal foraging theory, for agent foragers to make mobility and foraging decisions by weighing expected caloric returns against geographic and social factors, and forecasted future return rates. We evaluate the effectiveness of this and alternative decision making strategies by comparing their caloric returns over the long-term.

During the early Holocene in South Africa, Later Stone Age (LSA) foragers systematically exploited a wide variety of flora and fauna in both terrestrial and inter-tidal environments. We first use a combination of modeling and field-based foraging experiments to rigorously reconstruct the spatially and temporally variable caloric returns of the South African Holocene resource environment. Next we apply our decision making system to this resource environment as a way of gaining greater insight into LSA foraging patterns. Finally, we discuss the implications of our study for the evolution of complex cognition.


Friday April 1, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Bibliotheca

10:30

S16-05 Geometrical and planar graphs in ancient iconography studies, a heuristic tool
Geometrical and planar graphs in ancient iconography studies, a heuristic tool

Thomas Huet

Abstract
By definition, Prehistory’s symbolic systems are not readable; one of the main attributes of the writing -the syntactical axe- is lacking in almost all of ancient iconographical compositions (painted caves, engraved rocks, ceramic decorations, etc.). In those compositions, graphical units (GU) are commonly displayed with what Chippindale called a “weak tendency of avoidance” between each other. Therefore, despite the chrono-cultural attribution work (by comparison, study of superimpositions, seriation, etc.) of GU, recognition of associations and recurrent compositions (patterns) remains difficult. Furthermore, in almost all statistical analysis on ancient iconography, GU are quotes in term of presence/absence in data table and their proximity links are lost during the analysis process.
We will present different cases studies showing how geometric and planar graphs, belonging to network analysis, are heuristic tools to manage “weak organised” compositions of graphical units.


Friday April 1, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Academica, Theologisk eksamenssal

10:30

S19-05 Optimization in the co-registration of large point clouds for archaeological visualization
Optimization in the Co-Registration of Large Point Clouds for Archaeological Visualization

Dominique E Meyer, Jamie Hodgkins, Fabio Negrino, Christopher E Miller, Caley M Orr, Falko Kuester, Stefano Benazzi, Marco Peresani, Julien Riel-Salvatore, David Strait, Matthias Czechowski, Vera Smirnova

Abstract
Photogrammetry has been used in Archaeological studies to gather 3D data of sites and artifacts. Improvements in imaging systems, stitching algorithms and computation power has increased point cloud sizes and densities. Open-source and commercial softwares often cannot handle very large point clouds, making it cumbersome and difficult to combine large data sets. We propose a novel workflow to optimize the merging of large point clouds and visualizing them. Sites are often reconstructed at different scales ranging from square kilometers for environments to millimeter details on the ground. Aerial Surveys can be used to create large Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and they can contribute 3D models of buildings and architecture which is not easily accessible. Handheld photogrammetry and LIDAR scanning can be used on the ground to gather high accuracy models of structures, interiors and artifacts. A case study of the Arma Vairana Cave in Liguria, Italy, is presented where nine aerial and ground point clouds were merged into a fully immersive point cloud.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Michael Hess

Michael Hess

Ph.D. Student, University of California, San Diego
I am a structural engineering Ph.D. student and I am a part of a multidisciplinary team of engineers, scientists, and archaeologists working to document, visualize and analyze pieces of cultural heritage. The goal of my research is to use non-destructive imaging techniques such as LiDAR, thermal imaging and geo-radar in order to document and assess the state of health of historical structures. My hope is to develop diagnostic methodologies that... Read More →


Friday April 1, 2016 10:30 - 10:55
Domus Media, Aulaen

10:55

S03-06 Evocative virtual exploration of underwater sites: Issues and approaches
Evocative virtual exploration of underwater sites: issues and approaches

Manuela Ritondale, Gaia Pavoni, Roberto Scopigno, Marco Callieri, Matteo Dellepiane

Abstract
The preservation in-situ and the use of non-intrusive technologies are prior principles in the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage of 2001, thus introducing new challenges for the management of the underwater sites. The latter include the need to reach a high quality level in the documentation using remote sensing techniques and the need to protect the sites although ensuring their full accessibility.
Digital technologies have provided several solutions for the documentation, the visualization, the monitoring and the predictive analysis of CH sites. Nonetheless, a real time effective visualization of an underwater scene is much more complex than the navigation on the ground, due to the presence of all the light effects introduced by water as a transmission medium (absorption, turbidity, caustics, scattering...). The aforementioned technical constraints might affect the perception of the public.
This work aims to summarize the main issues and directions for an effective (not necessarily naturalistic) virtual exploration of underwater sites, and to propose further options for a successful storytelling. In order to reach the goal, a number of aspects must be redesigned, thus taking also into account two different pivotal concepts which imply rather different approaches and solutions: that of immateriality and that of intangibility.
Which kind of intangible relations are hidden behind archaeological objects? How can we display them? Is it possible to enable a material experience through virtual technologies? We try to face these issues and to propose solutions on a case-study related to a deep-water site.

Moderators
Speakers
avatar for Marco Callieri

Marco Callieri

researcher @ Visual computing Lab, ISTI-CNR, ISTI-CNR
3DHOP Apostle -- Meshlab Cultist


Friday April 1, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Professorboligen, stallen

10:55

S10-05 How raw is raw data?
How raw is raw data?

Dominik Lukas

Abstract
The biggest threshold to understand scientific knowledge, as it is stored in heterogeneous datasets today, is not the general availability of data, but the lack of transparence of its meaning and how datasets interrelate on the conceptual level. Moreover the increasing availability of research data has made it necessary to deal with a 'deluge' of information also in archaeology. Terms like 'big data', a proposed '4th paradigm' or simply the propagation of a 'digital turn' are used to describe this development. In fact, the modalities of data storage and its publication on the Internet make it possible to overlook the inherent dependencies that are part of the process from data generation to retrieval. The strangely externalized matter that data driven research seems to be confronted with, even allows for the postulation of a 'new empiricism' - a point of view that fails to acknowledge the theoretical implications of the generation of datasets and their forms of storage, assuming that the sheer quantity of data has made scientific method obsolete. 
In my paper I will examine the epistemological framework of data structures used in archaeological research, showing their theoretical and research strategic implications. I will argue that the relationship between archaeological data and its scientific interpretation, as reflected in the existing data models, must be understood as constituents of specific ‘infrastructures of knowledge’. In consequence it is necessary to make scientific inference formally visible. The goal is the explication of semantic values embedded in the data structures and the mapping of provenance and inference. I will discuss whether this can be done through the implementation of existing ontologies or the development of specific micro ontologies, by presenting examples from the development of the Çatalhöyük Living Archive.

Moderators
SP

Sara Perry

University of York | Twitter: @archaeologistsp | | | Personal Page: http://saraperry.wordpress.com

Speakers

Friday April 1, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Auditorium 13

10:55

S13-06 Computational approaches for studying cultural coexistence in Peru’s urban landscape: Contributions and questions
Computational approaches for studying cultural coexistence in Peru’s urban landscape: Contributions and questions

Kayeleigh Sharp

Abstract
New work on the north coast of Peru has produced a complex picture of ancient lifeways that challenges the wide-held conceptions of cultural coexistence in the region. Major decorated, funerary monuments and large-scale urban centers of a group known as the Mochica have received a lion's share of attention for over a century. As a result of this highly skewed sampling, very little is known about daily life and internal organization and dynamics at smaller cities or non-monumental administrative centers. Recent research at the Songoy-Cojal site complex, a mid-sized center in the Zaña Valley, has taken major strides to overcome this lacuna. By applying a combination of image-based 3D modeling and spatial analysis techniques, this work has begun to transform the way quotidian relationships between the Gallinazo and Mochica civilizations are perceived and analyzed. In this micro-scale analysis of interior spaces, 3D models were used to create detailed maps and carry out in-depth architectural analysis, while high-powered spatial statistical analysis including geographically weighted regression, and multi-distance spatial cluster analysis was conducted to model spatial relationships, determine whether statistically significant clustering or dispersion of features and their attributes was observed over the site, and to explore spatial relationships between different types of activity areas. Combined, these techniques were useful for elucidating various aspects of Gallinazo and Mochica social differentiation and technological diversity that were nearly impossible to detect using non-computational strategies. Most importantly, it has been possible to challenge decades-old research that has served to inappropriately dichotomize the relationship (e.g., superordinate versus subordinate) between these groups, moving well beyond the use of computational tools for descriptive model building. While exploring the analytical potential that combined photogrammetric and spatial statistical approaches hold for the future of archaeological investigation, this work contributes significantly to our understanding of small-scale urbanism on Peru’s north coast.


Friday April 1, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Academica, Gamle festsal

10:55

S14-06 The versatilist’s story of human dispersal: Climate fluctuation, adaptation and the evolution of human uniqueness
The Versatilist’s Story of Human Dispersal: Climate Fluctuation, Adaptation and the Evolution of Human Uniqueness

Iza Romanowska

Abstract
The Variability Selection Hypothesis proposed by Potts (1996; 1998) postulates the evolution of behavioural plasticity among early hominins arising during periods of strong environmental fluctuations in the last 6 million years. It argues that the inconsistency in selection regimes caused by the rapid environmental fluctuations produced particularly strong selection pressure on adapting to change rather than any particular set of environmental conditions. This promoted adaptive changes leading to a higher level of behavioural plasticity and the evolution of organisms which can be described as ’versatilists’, for example early hominins. 

Here, we present an extension of the single locus model by Grove (2011) - the first successful formalisation of the Variability Selection Hypothesis into a mathematical framework. The current implementation aims to assess the implications of the Variability Selection Hypothesis on the agents ability to disperse, a process that is visible in the archaeological record. The model was translated into a stochastic multi-agent simulation to investigate the dynamics between individuals with different positions and range on the adaptative spectrum (including the ’versatilist’ individuals) within a non-homogenous population. The particular focus of this presentation is on the spatial structuring of the migration wave and the question of what characteristics of the original population play a role in its ability to disperse.

Moderators
Friday April 1, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Bibliotheca

10:55

10:55

S19-06 3D survey for archaeology: When the solution can be a problem
3D survey for archaeology: when the solution can be a problem

Angela Bosco

Abstract
The introduction of sophisticated survey techniques in archaeology has led to clear improvements in the acquisition process, making faster some operations and allowing unprecedented accuracy. But archaeology is really able to manage these oceans of data? 
Although the perspectives are very interesting and challenging for the research, the feeling of not having yet fully exploited the potential of this instrument is strong. Archaeology (among other disciplines) insists to use the 3D as a kind of "advanced" 2D, thus losing its main benefit: the volume. 
On the other hand, research experience in Italian archaeological sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum and nearby areas, allowed us to meet and deal with different issues. The article aims to address the problems of acquisition, processing and subsequent restitution of the extracted data of three-dimensional survey, whether by laser scanner or un-calibrated photogrammetry, both terrestrial and aerial. 
Also, issues relevant to the post-processing of the point clouds and the management of huge amounts of data are treated.
Practical examples clearly show the need (i) to clarify what are the products that can be obtained from the application of each survey technique, (ii) to give information to correlate the products with the aims of the specific archaeological study, (iii) to give guidelines for the right integration of the different techniques in order to take full advantage of their potential and to allow that 3D survey will be seen not only as a container of infinite planes, sections and ortho-rectified photos, but as a real database itself, that can be queried to get 360-degree information.


Friday April 1, 2016 10:55 - 11:20
Domus Media, Aulaen

11:20

S03-07 Discussion
A Space and Time Analysis of the Early Bronze Age Levantine Littoral

Crystal Safadi

Abstract
Maritime spaces are endowed with a set of natural characteristics acting upon and beneath the water surface. They foster a home for the movement of winds, of water, of ships, and of people. Movement through these spaces is a function of a complex system of interaction between humans, the environment, and humans’ perception of the environment. Yet Maritime spaces are not present in isolation or within demarcations. In fact, land and sea seamlessly merge shaping waterfronts and shores marked by human activities. The importance of these coastlines and their imbued heritage, is well paramount in maritime cultural landscapes studies. They form a substantial heritage record, a place of archaeological signature, and specialization. However, though our knowledge of maritime spaces is growing, much of their potential and affordances remain concealed. Through reconstructing, testing, and analysing, experimentally or digitally, we can reach a step closer to lived maritime spaces. 
The Early Bronze Age (EBA) in the Levant is recognised for marking the first urban period in the southern Levant, and the ‘second urban revolution’ in the northern Levant. It is characterised by significant changes, primarily a shift from village-like communities towards an urban mode of life. The Levantine littoral, particularly in the north, is known to have played a major role during the mid-third millennium, when maritime connections mainly with Egypt became vital. This has been considered one of the instigators of urban development. However, numerous hypotheses have attempted to explain the rise of social complexity and urbanism, yet most of these failed to consider the totality of the space over which change is occurring, and appraise the Levantine littoral in its full potentiality, as a seamless space of sea and land. This paper aims to study and analyse the littoral Levant during the EBA as a space of affordances, accessibility, and connectivity. It builds on a time-space analysis of traveling by sea and by land, and attempts to move beyond the representation of space towards spaces of representations which incorporates at its foundation social activities.

Moderators
Friday April 1, 2016 11:20 - 11:45
Professorboligen, stallen